JOURNAL ARTICLE

Consequence of Cryptosporidiosis on the immune response of vaccinated broiler chickens against Newcastle disease and/or avian influenza

Abdelfattah H Eladl, Hamed R Hamed, Mostafa R Khalil
Veterinary Research Communications 2014, 38 (3): 237-47
24993748
The consequence of cryptosporidiosis on the immune response of vaccinated chickens against Newcastle disease and/or avian influenza was studied by using 240, 1 day old, male, white Hy-Line chicks and divided into 8 groups and subgroups. Each group or subgroup was consisting of 30 chicks (15 × 2 replicates). The first and second groups were kept as unvaccinated control, G1uninfected and G2 infected. G3, G4 and G5 contained 2 subgroups A&B (G3A, G3B, G4A, G4B, G5A and G5B). Chicks of subgroup A were vaccinated only while chicks of subgroup B were infected and vaccinated. These chicks were orally inoculated with 5 × 10(5) oocysts of Cryptosporidium baileyi (C. baileyi) at 2 days of age. Chickens were vaccinated intraocular with live Newcastle disease (ND) vaccine (Hitchner on day 7th and LaSota on day 17th of chicken life) (G3) or vaccinated by subcutaneous route with Volvac®- H5N2- AI vaccine on day 10 of chicken life (G4). Last group (G5) was infected similarly and vaccinated with ND and AI vaccines with the same day, dose and route of vaccination for each one. Random blood samples were collected for 3 weeks post-vaccination for investigation of humoral immune response against Newcastle and/or avian influenza vaccines by the haemagglutination inhibition (HI) test. The results showed that H5N2 vaccine at day 10 of chicken life is effective in chickens indicated by the geometric mean of HI titer against AI virus. The findings of this study showed that the infection with Cryptosporidia in the broiler chicken has a depressive effect on the immune status of the birds vaccinated against ND and/or AI vaccination. Moreover, the obtained protection rates against challenge with virulent ND virus observed to be parallel to the results of HI- test. Also, by using 2 different antigens (one commercial and field prepared antigen) to avian influenza virus, lower Geometric mean (GM) HI titer were appeared in infected and vaccinated group than vaccinated group only. A study of the relative lymphoid organs weight such as bursa of Fabricius from the experimental chicks indicated that those organs were comparable between the groups infected-vaccinated and vaccinated only. Non significant variations in final live weight between uninfected control and infected groups were indicated. Also, H5N2-AI vaccination at 10 days old did not affect the final live weight. ND and/or AI Vaccination could not be a substitute to application of good hygienic measures and fecal examination of the birds especially for protozoal diseases such as cryptosporidiosis. It could be concluded that cryptosporidiosis could be one cause of ND and/or AI vaccination failure in poultry farms.

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