Improved outcome of extracorporeal cardiopulmonary resuscitation for out-of-hospital cardiac arrest—a comparison with that for extracorporeal rescue for in-hospital cardiac arrest

Chih-Hsien Wang, Nai-Kuan Chou, Lance B Becker, Jou-Wei Lin, Hsi-Yu Yu, Nai-Hsin Chi, Shu-Chien Hunag, Wen-Je Ko, Shoei-Shen Wang, Li-Jung Tseng, Ming-Hsien Lin, I-Hui Wu, Matthew Huei-Ming Ma, Yih-Sharng Chen
Resuscitation 2014, 85 (9): 1219-24

PURPOSE: The aim was to investigate the effects of extracorporeal cardiopulmonary resuscitation (ECPR) for out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) and compare the results with those of in-hospital cardiac arrest (IHCA).

METHODS: We analyzed our extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) results for patients who received ECPR for OHCA or IHCA in the last 5 years. Pre-arrest, resuscitation, and post-resuscitative data were evaluated.

RESULTS: In the last 5 years, ECPR was used 230 times for OHCA (n=31) and IHCA (n=199). The basic demographic data showed significant differences in age, cardiomyopathy, and location of the initial CPR. Duration of ischemia was shorter in the IHCA group (44.4±24.7 min vs. 67.5±30.6 min, p<0.05). About 50% of each group underwent a further intervention to treat the underlying etiology. ECMO was maintained for a shorter duration in the OHCA patients (61±48 h vs. 94±122 h, p<0.05). Survival to discharge was similar in the two groups (38.7% for OHCA vs. 31.2% for IHCA, p>0.05), as was the favorable outcome rate (25.5% for OHCA vs. 25.1% for IHCA, p>0.05). Survival was acceptable (about 33%) in both groups when the duration of ischemia was no longer than 75 min.

CONCLUSIONS: In addition to having a beneficial effect in IHCA, ECPR can lead to survival and a positive neurological outcome in selected OHCA patients after prolonged resuscitation. Our results suggest that further investigation of the use of ECMO in OHCA is warranted.

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