Variable patterns of obesity and cardiometabolic phenotypes and their association with lifestyle factors in the study

Carolina Gutiérrez-Repiso, Federico Soriguer, Gemma Rojo-Martínez, Eduardo García-Fuentes, Sergio Valdés, Albert Goday, Alfonso Calle-Pascual, Alfonso López-Alba, Conxa Castell, Edelmiro Menéndez, Elena Bordiú, Elías Delgado, Emilio Ortega, Gemma Pascual-Manich, Inés Urrutia, Inmaculada Mora-Peces, Joan Vendrell, José Antonio Vázquez, Josep Franch, Juan Girbés, Luis Castaño, Manuel Serrano-Ríos, María Teresa Martínez-Larrad, Miguel Catalá, Rafael Carmena, Ramón Gomis, Roser Casamitjana, Sonia Gaztambide
Nutrition, Metabolism, and Cardiovascular Diseases: NMCD 2014, 24 (9): 947-55

BACKGROUND AND AIM: Prevalence rates of "metabolically healthy obese" (MHO) subjects vary depending on the criteria used. This study examined the prevalence and characteristics of MHO subjects and metabolically abnormal normal-weight subjects and compared the findings with the NHANES 1999-2004 study. The aims of the present study were, first, to determine the prevalence rates of MHO and MNHNO subjects using the same criteria as those of the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) (1999-2004) study, and second to compare the prevalence and correlates of obese subjects who are resistant to the development of adiposity-associated cardiometabolic abnormalities (CA) and normal-weight individuals who display cardiometabolic risk factor clustering between the Spanish and the US populations.

METHODS AND RESULTS: study is a national, cross-sectional population-based survey of 5728 adults conducted in 2009-2010. Clinical, metabolic, sociodemographic, and anthropometric data and information about lifestyle habits, such as physical activity, smoking habit, alcohol intake and food consumption, were collected. Subjects were classified according to their body mass index (BMI) (normal-weight, <25 kg/m(2); overweight, 25-29.9 kg/m(2); and obese, >30 kg/m(2)). CA included elevated blood pressure; elevated levels of triglycerides, fasting glucose, and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP); and elevated homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) value and low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-c) level. Two phenotypes were defined: metabolically healthy phenotype (0-1 CA) and metabolically abnormal phenotype (≥2 CA). The prevalence of metabolically abnormal normal-weight phenotype was slightly lower in the Spanish population (6.5% vs. 8.1%). The prevalence of metabolically healthy overweight and MHO subjects was 20.9% and 7.0%, respectively, while in NHANES study it was 17.9% and 9.7%, respectively. Cigarette smoking was associated with CA in each phenotype, while moderate physical activity and moderate alcohol intake were associated with being metabolically healthy. Olive oil intake was negatively associated with the prevalence of CA.

CONCLUSIONS: Smoking, physical activity level, and alcohol intake contribute to the explanation of the prevalence of CA in the Spanish population, as in the US population. However in Spain, olive oil intake contributes significantly to the explanation of the variance in the prevalence of CA.

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