Pretherapeutic dosimetry in patients affected by metastatic thyroid cancer using 124I PET/CT sequential scans for 131I treatment planning

Cinzia Pettinato, Emiliano Spezi, Cristina Nanni, Gaia Grassetto, Fabio Monari, Vincenzo Allegri, Simona Civollani, Simona Cima, Paolo Zagni, Renzo Mazzarotto, Patrick M Colletti, Domenico Rubello, Stefano Fanti
Clinical Nuclear Medicine 2014, 39 (8): e367-74

PURPOSE: This study evaluates the use of sequential I PET/CT for predicting absorbed doses to metastatic lesions in patients with differentiated thyroid cancer undergoing I therapy.

METHODS: From July 2011 until July 2013, 30 patients with metastatic differentiated thyroid cancer were enrolled. Each participant underwent PET/CT at 4, 24, 48, and 72 hours with 74 MBq of I. Blood samples and whole-body exposure measurements were obtained to calculate blood and red marrow doses. Activity concentrations and lesion volumes obtained from PET/CT were used to evaluate tumor doses with medical internal radiation dose formalism and spheres modeling. Mean administered I therapeutic dose was 5994 MBq (range, 1953-11,455 MBq).

RESULTS: I PET/CT demonstrated all lesions detected by posttherapy I whole-body scans. Mean dose rates for blood, red marrow, and lesions were as follows: 0.07 ± 0.02 mGy/MBq, 0.05 ± 0.02 mGy/MBq, and 46.5 ± 117 mGy/MBq, respectively. Despite the high level of thyroid-stimulating hormone and CT detectable lesions, 15 of 30 patients did not show any abnormal I uptake.

CONCLUSIONS: The quantitative value of I PET/CT allows simple and accurate evaluation of lesion dosimetry following medical internal radiation dose formalism. Negative I PET/CT predicts absence of iodine avidity, potentially allowing avoidance of therapeutically ineffective I administration.

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