Cytokine profiles in polymyositis and dermatomyositis complicated by rapidly progressive or chronic interstitial lung disease

Takahisa Gono, Hirotaka Kaneko, Yasushi Kawaguchi, Masanori Hanaoka, Sayuri Kataoka, Masataka Kuwana, Kae Takagi, Hisae Ichida, Yasuhiro Katsumata, Yuko Ota, Hidenaga Kawasumi, Hisashi Yamanaka
Rheumatology 2014, 53 (12): 2196-203

OBJECTIVE: PM and DM are often complicated by interstitial lung disease (ILD). In this study we aimed to evaluate various serum cytokines in patients with PM/DM with ILD so as to clarify the differences in pathophysiology between anti-melanoma differentiation-associated gene 5 antibody-associated ILD (anti-MDA5-ILD) and anti-aminoacyl tRNA synthetase antibody-associated ILD (anti-ARS-ILD).

METHODS: We evaluated the serum cytokine profiles of 38 patients with PM/DM and compared the cytokine profiles of the non-ILD and ILD subsets as well as the anti-MDA5-ILD and anti-ARS-ILD subsets.

RESULTS: The myositis intention-to-treat activity index score, which indicates whole disease activity, significantly correlated with serum IL-6, IL-8, TNF-α and IP-10. These cytokine levels were significantly higher in the ILD subset than the non-ILD subset and were lower in the ILD subset following treatment. By multivariate analysis, TNF-α was the most significant cytokine [P = 0.0006, odds ratio (OR) 1.4, CI 1.1, 2.2] associated with PM/DM with ILD. IL-8 levels were significantly higher in anti-MDA5-ILD than in anti-ARS-ILD, although IL-6, TNF-α and IP-10 levels were high in both subsets. IL-8 was the most significant cytokine (P = 0.0006, OR 1.5, CI 1.1, 3.0) associated with anti-MDA5-ILD by multivariate analysis. Moreover, the ratio of IL-4 to IFN-γ was lower in anti-MDA5-ILD than in anti-ARS-ILD.

CONCLUSION: IL-6, IL-8, TNF-α and IP-10 are associated with global disease activity in PM/DM. These cytokine levels were high, especially in the ILD subset. Serum IL-8 levels and the balance between IL-4 and IFN-γ may contribute to the differences in pathophysiology between anti-ARS-ILD and anti-MDA5-ILD.


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