Chromosome 3 status combined with BAP1 and EIF1AX mutation profiles are associated with metastasis in uveal melanoma

Kathryn G Ewens, Peter A Kanetsky, Jennifer Richards-Yutz, Juliana Purrazzella, Carol L Shields, Tapan Ganguly, Arupa Ganguly
Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science 2014 June 26, 55 (8): 5160-7

PURPOSE: Somatic mutations in GNAQ, GNA11, SF3B1, EIF1AX, and BAP1 have been identified in uveal melanoma (UM). The aim of this study was to determine whether mutations in these genes in primary tumors were associated with metastases in individuals diagnosed with UM.

METHODS: A total of 63 UM cases who developed a metastasis within 48 months of primary treatment and 53 UM controls who were metastasis-free over a similar time period were selected for the study. Primary UM cases were screened for mutations in GNAQ, GNA11, SF3B1, EIF1AX, and BAP1. The association of these mutations with tumor characteristics, chromosome 3 copy number, and metastatic status was analyzed by logistic regression to estimate the odds of developing metastasis within 48 months.

RESULTS: As expected, tumor diameter, thickness, cilio-choroidal location, and chromosome 3 monosomy were all significantly (P < 0.02) associated with the presence of metastasis. In univariate analysis, GNA11 (odds ratio [OR] 2.5, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.1-5.5) and BAP1 (OR 6.3, 95% CI 2.7-14.4) mutations were positively associated and EIF1AX mutation (OR 0.13, 95% CI 0.034-0.47) was inversely associated with metastatic status at 48 months after UM treatment. After adjustment for covariates, a chromosome 3 monosomy/BAP1-mutation/EIF1AX-wild-type (WT) mutation profile was strongly associated (OR 37.5, 95% CI 4.3-414) with the presence of metastasis compared with a chromosome 3 disomy/BAP1-WT/EIF1AX mutation profile.

CONCLUSIONS: The results suggest that knowledge of mutations in BAP1 and EIF1AX can enhance prognostication of UM beyond that determined by chromosome 3 and tumor characteristics. Tumors with chromosome 3 disomy/BAP1-WT/EIF1AX-WT have a 10-fold increased risk of metastasis at 48 months compared with disomy-3/BAP1-WT/EIF1AX mutant tumors.

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