Prebiopsy multiparametric 3T prostate MRI in patients with elevated PSA, normal digital rectal examination, and no previous biopsy

Ivan Jambor, Esa Kähkönen, Pekka Taimen, Harri Merisaari, Jani Saunavaara, Kalle Alanen, Branislav Obsitnik, Heikki Minn, Viera Lehotska, Hannu J Aronen
Journal of Magnetic Resonance Imaging: JMRI 2015, 41 (5): 1394-404

PURPOSE: To find the diagnostic accuracy of 3T multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging (mpMRI) and mpMRI targeted transrectal ultrasound (TRUS)-guided biopsy using visual coregistration (TB) in patients with elevated prostate-specific antigen (PSA), normal digital rectal examination, and no previous biopsy.

MATERIALS AND METHODS: Fifty-five patients at two institutions underwent mpMRI, consisting of anatomical T2 -weighted imaging (T2 W), diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI), proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy ((1) H-MRS), and dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI (DCE-MRI), followed by TB in addition to 12 core systematic TRUS-guided biopsy (SB). Histopathological scorings of biopsy (n = 38) and prostatectomy (n = 17) specimens were used as the reference standard for calculation of diagnostic accuracy values. Clinically significant prostate cancer (SPCa) was defined as 3 mm core length of Gleason score 3+3 or any Gleason grade 4.

RESULTS: The sensitivity, specificity, accuracy, and area under the curve (AUC) values for the detection of SPCa on the sextant level for T2 W+DWI+(1) H-MRS+DCE-MRI were 72%, 89%, 85%, and 0.81, respectively. The corresponding values for T2 wi+DWI were 61%, 96%, 87%, and 0.79, respectively. The overall PCa detection rate per core in 53 patients was 21% (138 of 648 cores) for SB and 43% (33 of 77 cores) for TB (P < 0.001).

CONCLUSION: Prebiopsy mpMRI is an accurate tool for PCa detection and biopsy targeting in patients with elevated PSA.

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