Facial feminization surgery: the forehead. Surgical techniques and analysis of results

Luis Capitán, Daniel Simon, Kai Kaye, Thiago Tenorio
Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery 2014, 134 (4): 609-19

BACKGROUND: Facial feminization surgery encompasses a series of surgical techniques derived from plastic and craniomaxillofacial surgery to soften facial features that are generally perceived as being more masculine, mainly in patients diagnosed with gender dysphoria. This article describes the main surgical techniques used in feminization of the forehead complex, sequences the different steps in forehead reconstruction, evaluates results obtained using cephalometric analysis, and includes the level of patient satisfaction.

METHODS: Between January of 2008 and December of 2012, the authors performed a total of 172 forehead operations. The postsurgical results were analyzed using postoperative cephalometric studies that were compared with preoperative teleradiographies. The patients' level of satisfaction was also evaluated using a satisfaction questionnaire that they filled out after a 6-month postoperative period.

RESULTS: Along with an evaluation of patient satisfaction and clinical and cephalometric results where significant setback of the frontal bossing was observed, the authors present the sequencing of frontonasal-orbital reconstruction/recontouring with systematic osteotomy of the anterior wall of the frontal sinus in addition to developing a modification of the standard coronal approach.

CONCLUSIONS: By treating the forehead region with the different surgical procedures described in this article, masculine facial features of the upper third can be modified with predictable and satisfactory results. Facial feminization surgery must be considered part of the process of treating patients with gender dysphoria, because the modification and elimination of masculine facial features allows these patients to adapt more easily to the workplace and social and family environments.


Full Text Links

Find Full Text Links for this Article


You are not logged in. Sign Up or Log In to join the discussion.

Related Papers

Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read

Save your favorite articles in one place with a free QxMD account.


Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"