Endobronchial/Endoesophageal Ultrasound (EBUS/EUS) Guided Fine Needle Aspiration (FNA) and 18F-FDG PET/CT Scanning in Restaging of Locally Advanced Non-small Cell Lung Cancer (NSCLC) Treated with Chemo-radiotherapy: A Mono-institutional Pilot Experience

Giovenzio Genestreti, Marco Angelo Burgio, Federica Matteucci, Sara Piciucchi, Emanuela Scarpi, Manuela Monti, Lauro Bucchi, Elisabetta Parisi, Lucia Crociani, Carlo Gurioli, Venerino Poletti, Giampaolo Gavelli
Technology in Cancer Research & Treatment 2015, 14 (6): 721-7
Chemo-radiotherapy is standard treatment of stage IIIA-N2 bulky or IIIB non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Surgical resection of residual disease in downstaged patients may improve overall survival. In this setting, restaging disease is still a challenge. 18F-FDG PET/CT represents the gold standard although accuracy results are disappointing. Endoscopic bronchial/ esophageal ultrasound (EBUS/EUS)-guided fine needle aspiration (FNA) may confirm lymph node (LN) involvement. We analyzed 16 patients with stage IIIA-N2 bulky or IIIB NSCLC treated with chemo-radiotherapy. At restaging, all patients performed EBUS/EUS with FNA and PET/CT scan and results were compared. Patients underwent PET/CT scan 43 days (range: 24-89) and EBUS/EUS 42 days (range: 14-71) after therapy. Overall, 7 EBUS and 9 EUS procedures were performed: no complications resulting from the procedure occurred. In 6 patients EBUS/EUS did not reveal any suspicious lesions; in 2 the exam showed enlarged mediastinal LN that were biopsied, but with no evidence of tumor cells; in 2 the sample was not considered diagnostic; 6 had persistent mediastinal LN involvement. PET/CT scan showed 4 cases of complete metabolic response, 9 partial metabolic response, 2 stable metabolic disease and one progressive metabolic disease. Notably, all 7 patients with .80% decrease in SUV with respect to basal value showed a pathological complete response or negative EBUS/EUS. EBUS/EUS could be used to complement PET/CT scanning to verify mediastinal LN clearance. Further prospective trials are warranted to confirm the utility of EBUS/EUS together with PET/CT in restaging locally advanced NSCLC.

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