Fourth-generation ceramic-on-ceramic total hip arthroplasty in patients of 55 years or younger: short-term results and complications analysis

Weiguo Wang, Wanshou Guo, Debo Yue, Zhencai Shi, Nianfei Zhang, Zhaohui Liu, Wei Sun, Bailiang Wang, Zirong Li
Chinese Medical Journal 2014, 127 (12): 2310-5

BACKGROUND: The incidence of total hip replacement in the younger and more active patients is ever increasing. The ceramic-on-ceramic (COC) bearing was developed to reduce wear debris-induced osteolysis and loosening and to improve the longevity of hip arthroplasties. Few studies have reported the clinical results and complications of the new zirconia-toughened ceramic total hip arthroplasty (THA).

METHODS: A consecutive series of 132 young patients (177 hips) that underwent primary cementless THAs between January 2010 and December 2012 were included in this study. These arthroplasties all had fourth-generation COC bearings performed through a posterolateral approach. The average age was (41.8 ± 8.3) years (ranging from 22 to 55 years), and the mean follow-up period was (24.5 ± 9.4) months (ranging from 12 to 47 months). The results were evaluated both clinically and radiographically. Harris hip score (HHS) was determined before surgery and at the time of each follow-up. Presence of postoperative groin or thigh pain and squeaking were recorded. Other complications such as dislocations, periprosthetic fractures, and ceramic components fractures were diagnosed and treated in emergency.

RESULTS: The average HHSs improved from preoperative 60.3 ± 10.7 (ranging from 29 to 76) to 91.0 ± 5.1 (ranging from 74 to 100) at the final follow-up (t = 45.064, P < 0.05), and 97.7% of cases were scored as excellent and good results. At the last follow-up, incidental inguinal pain was found in three hips (1.7%) and thigh pain in 11 hips (6.2%). Radiographs showed a high rate of new bone formation around the acetabular and stem components. No obvious osteolysis or prosthesis loosening was detected. Complications occurred in six hips (3.4%): posterior dislocation in two hips (1.1%), periprosthetic femoral fracture in one hip (0.6%), asymptomatic squeaking in two hips (1.1%), and ceramic liner fracture in one hip (0.6%).

CONCLUSIONS: The fourth-generation COC THA showed excellent clinical results in younger active patients with no osteolysis-related prosthesis failure at a short-term follow-up study. Surgeons should still be aware of the potential risks of complications such as dislocation, periprosthetic fracture, squeaking, and ceramic components fracture.

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