Improved glucose control with weight loss, lower insulin doses, and no increased hypoglycemia with empagliflozin added to titrated multiple daily injections of insulin in obese inadequately controlled type 2 diabetes

Julio Rosenstock, Ante Jelaska, Guillaume Frappin, Afshin Salsali, Gabriel Kim, Hans J Woerle, Uli C Broedl
Diabetes Care 2014, 37 (7): 1815-23

OBJECTIVE: We investigated the efficacy and safety of the sodium glucose cotransporter 2 inhibitor, empagliflozin, added to multiple daily injections of insulin (MDI insulin) in obese patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM).

RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: Patients inadequately controlled on MDI insulin ± metformin (mean HbA1c 8.3% [67 mmol/mol]; BMI 34.8 kg/m(2); insulin dose 92 international units/day) were randomized and treated with once-daily empagliflozin 10 mg (n = 186), empagliflozin 25 mg (n = 189), or placebo (n = 188) for 52 weeks. Insulin dose was to remain stable in weeks 1-18, adjusted to meet glucose targets in weeks 19-40, then stable in weeks 41-52. The primary end point was change from baseline in HbA1c at week 18. Secondary end points were changes from baseline in insulin dose, weight, and HbA1c at week 52.

RESULTS: Adjusted mean ± SE changes from baseline in HbA1c were -0.50 ± 0.05% (-5.5 ± 0.5 mmol/mol) for placebo versus -0.94 ± 0.05% (-10.3 ± 0.5 mmol/mol) and -1.02 ± 0.05% (-11.1 ± 0.5 mmol/mol) for empagliflozin 10 mg and empagliflozin 25 mg, respectively, at week 18 (both P < 0.001). At week 52, further reductions with insulin titration resulted in changes from baseline in HbA1c of -0.81 ± 0.08% (-8.9 ± 0.9 mmol/mol), -1.18 ± 0.08% (-12.9 ± 0.9 mmol/mol), and -1.27 ± 0.08% (-13.9 ± 0.9 mmol/mol) with placebo, empagliflozin 10 mg, and empagliflozin 25 mg, respectively, and final HbA1c of 7.5% (58 mmol/mol), 7.2% (55 mmol/mol), and 7.1% (54 mmol/mol), respectively. More patients attained HbA1c <7% (<53 mmol/mol) with empagliflozin (31-42%) versus placebo (21%; both P < 0.01). Empagliflozin 10 mg and empagliflozin 25 mg reduced insulin doses (-9 to -11 international units/day) and weight (-2.4 to -2.5 kg) versus placebo (all P < 0.01) at week 52.

CONCLUSIONS: In obese, difficult-to-treat patients with T2DM inadequately controlled on high MDI insulin doses, empagliflozin improved glycemic control and reduced weight without increasing the risk of hypoglycemia and with lower insulin requirements.

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