The generation of definitive endoderm from human embryonic stem cells is initially independent from activin A but requires canonical Wnt-signaling

Ortwin Naujok, Ulf Diekmann, Sigurd Lenzen
Stem Cell Reviews 2014, 10 (4): 480-93
The activation of the TGF-beta pathway by activin A directs ES cells into the definitive endoderm germ layer. However, there is evidence that activin A/TGF-beta is not solely responsible for differentiation into definitive endoderm. GSK3beta inhibition has recently been shown to generate definitive endoderm-like cells from human ES cells via activation of the canonical Wnt-pathway. The GSK3beta inhibitor CHIR-99021 has been reported to generate mesoderm from human iPS cells. Thus, the specific role of the GSK3beta inhibitor CHIR-99021 was analyzed during the differentiation of human ES cells and compared against a classic endoderm differentiation protocol. At high concentrations of CHIR-99021, the cells were directed towards mesodermal cell fates, while low concentrations permitted mesodermal and endodermal differentiation. Finally, the analyses revealed that GSK3beta inhibition rapidly directed human ES cells into a primitive streak-like cell type independently from the TGF-beta pathway with mesoderm and endoderm differentiation potential. Addition of low activin A concentrations effectively differentiated these primitive streak-like cells into definitive endoderm. Thus, the in vitro differentiation of human ES cells into definitive endoderm is initially independent from the activin A/TGF-beta pathway but requires high canonical Wnt-signaling activity.

Full Text Links

Find Full Text Links for this Article


You are not logged in. Sign Up or Log In to join the discussion.

Trending Papers

Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read

Save your favorite articles in one place with a free QxMD account.


Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"