Effect of CTGF/CCN2 on osteo/cementoblastic and fibroblastic differentiation of a human periodontal ligament stem/progenitor cell line

Asuka Yuda, Hidefumi Maeda, Shinsuke Fujii, Satoshi Monnouchi, Naohide Yamamoto, Naohisa Wada, Katsuaki Koori, Atsushi Tomokiyo, Sayuri Hamano, Daigaku Hasegawa, Akifumi Akamine
Journal of Cellular Physiology 2015, 230 (1): 150-9
Appropriate mechanical loading during occlusion and mastication play an important role in maintaining the homeostasis of periodontal ligament (PDL) tissue. Connective tissue growth factor (CTGF/CCN2), a matricellular protein, is known to upregulate extracellular matrix production, including collagen in PDL tissue. However, the underlying mechanisms of CTGF/CCN2 in regulation of PDL tissue integrity remain unclear. In this study, we investigated the effect of CTGF/CCN2 on osteo/cementoblastic and fibroblastic differentiation of human PDL stem cells using the cell line 1-11. CTGF/CCN2 expression in rat PDL tissue and human PDL cells (HPDLCs) was confirmed immunohisto/cytochemically. Mechanical loading was found to increase gene expression and secretion of CTGF/CCN2 in HPDLCs. CTGF/CCN2 upregulated the proliferation and migration of 1-11 cells. Furthermore, increased bone/cementum-related gene expression in this cell line led to mineralization. In addition, combined treatment of 1-11 cells with CTGF/CCN2 and transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1) significantly promoted type I collagen and fibronectin expression compared with that of TGF-β1 treatment alone. Thus, these data suggest the underlying biphasic effects of CTGF/CCN2 in 1-11 cells, inducible osteo/cementoblastic, and fibroblastic differentiation dependent on the environmental condition. CTGF/CCN2 may contribute to preservation of the structural integrity of PDL tissue, implying its potential use as a therapeutic agent for PDL regeneration.

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