Comparative replication capacity of raltegravir-resistant strains and antiviral activity of the new-generation integrase inhibitor dolutegravir in human primary macrophages and lymphocytes

Michela Pollicita, Matteo Surdo, Fabiola Di Santo, Maria Francesca Cortese, Lavinia Fabeni, Valentina Fedele, Isabelle Malet, Anne-Genevieve Marcelin, Vincent Calvez, Francesca Ceccherini-Silberstein, Carlo Federico Perno, Valentina Svicher
Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy 2014, 69 (9): 2412-9

OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the replication capacity and phenotypic susceptibility to dolutegravir and raltegravir of wild-type and raltegravir-resistant HIV-1 strains in several cellular systems.

METHODS: The antiviral activities of dolutegravir and raltegravir were evaluated in human primary monocyte-derived macrophages (MDMs), peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) and C8166 T lymphocytic cells. The following raltegravir resistance mutations were analysed: N155H, Y143C, N155H + Y143C and G140S+Q148H.

RESULTS: In the absence of drug, the replication capacity of raltegravir-resistant viruses was strongly reduced compared with wild-type in all cellular models analysed. In MDMs and PBMCs, a dramatic decrease in viral replication was observed for the double mutants N155H + Y143C and G140S + Q148H (ranging from 0.1% to 2.5% compared with wild-type). In MDMs, dolutegravir exhibited high potency, with EC50 and EC90 values of 1.1 ± 0.9 and 5.5 ± 3.4 nM, respectively (comparable to raltegravir). These values (particularly for EC90) were significantly lower than those observed in PBMCs (EC50: 2.7 ± 1.5 nM; EC90: 14.8 ± 0.9 nM) and C8166 cells (EC50: 5.5 ± 0.8 nM; EC90: 64.8 ± 5.8 nM). In all cellular models analysed, dolutegravir showed full efficacy against N155H and Y143C mutants (dolutegravir fold-change resistance ranging from 0.1 to 1.4; raltegravir fold-change resistance ranging from 0.1 to 10.3). In C8166 (the only cell model in which replication capacity was sufficient to perform the test) dolutegravir showed full efficacy against mutations N155H + Y143C (dolutegravir fold-change resistance: 0.6) and a slightly lower activity against G140S+Q148H (dolutegravir fold-change resistance: 2.1).

CONCLUSIONS: Dolutegravir is effective in different HIV cellular targets and against raltegravir-resistant mutants. The high efficacy of dolutegravir in MDMs (cells with limited metabolism) has relevant clinical implications in light of the role of MDMs in the transmission of HIV infection and dissemination in different body compartments.

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