Multi-lineage differentiation of human mesenchymal stromal cells on the biophysical microenvironment of cell-derived matrix

Dong Hoon Choi, Muhammad Suhaeri, Mintai P Hwang, Ik Hwan Kim, Dong Keun Han, Kwideok Park
Cell and Tissue Research 2014, 357 (3): 781-92
We obtained fibroblast- (FDM) and preosteoblast- (PDM) derived matrices in vitro from their respective cells. Our hypothesis was that these naturally occurring cell-derived matrices (CDMs) would provide a better microenvironment for the multi-lineage differentiation of human mesenchymal stromal cells (hMSCs) than those based on traditional single-protein-based platforms. Cells cultured for 5-6 days were decellularized with detergents and enzymes. The resulting matrices showed a fibrillar surface texture. Under osteogenic conditions, human bone-marrow-derived stromal cells (HS-5) exhibited higher amounts of both mineralized nodule formation and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) expression than those cultured on plastic or gelatin. Osteogenic markers (Col I, osteopontin, and cbfa1) and ALP activity from cells cultured on PDM were notably upregulated at 4 weeks. The use of FDM significantly improved the cellular expression of chondrogenic markers (Sox 9 and Col II), while downregulating that of Col I at 4 weeks. Both CDMs were more effective in inducing cellular synthesis of glycosaminoglycan content than control substrates. We also investigated the effect of matrix surface texture on hMSC (PT-2501) differentiation; soluble matrix (S-matrix)-coated substrates exhibited a localized fibronectin (FN) alignment, whereas natural matrix (N-matrix)-coated substrates preserved the naturally formed FN fibrillar alignment. hMSCs cultured for 4 weeks on N-matrices under osteogenic or chondrogenic conditions deposited a greater amount of calcium and proteoglycan than those cultured on S-matrices as assessed by von Kossa and Safranin O staining. In contrast to the expression levels of lineage-specific markers for cells cultured on gelatin, FN, or S-matrices, those cultured on N-matrices yielded highly upregulated levels. This study demonstrates not only the capacity of CDM for being an effective inductive template for the multi-lineage differentiation of hMSCs, but also the critical biophysical role that the matrix fibrillar texture itself plays on the induction of stem cell differentiation.

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