Phase II study of amrubicin combined with carboplatin for refractory relapsed small-cell lung cancer: North Japan Lung Cancer Group Trial 0802

Yosuke Kawashima, Akira Inoue, Shunichi Sugawara, Satoshi Oizumi, Makoto Maemondo, Koichi Okudera, Toshiro Suzuki, Kazuhiro Usui, Masao Harada, Naoto Morikawa, Yukihiro Hasegawa, Ryota Saito, Osamu Ishimoto, Tomohiro Sakakibara, Hajime Asahina, Toshihiro Nukiwa
Respiratory Investigation 2014, 52 (3): 190-4

BACKGROUND: Amrubicin (AMR), a new anthracycline agent, has shown promising results for advanced small-cell lung cancer (SCLC), although the efficacy of AMR alone against refractory relapsed SCLC is insufficient. This study was conducted to evaluate the safety and efficacy of the combination of AMR and carboplatin (CBDCA) in patients with refractory relapsed SCLC.

METHODS: Patients with advanced SCLC who relapsed within 90 days after the completion of first-line chemotherapy received AMR (30mg/m(2), days 1-3) and CBDCA (area under the curve 4.0mgmL(-1)min(-1), day 1) every 3 weeks. The primary endpoint of this study was the overall response rate (ORR), and the secondary endpoints were progression-free survival (PFS), overall survival, and the toxicity profile. Assuming that an ORR of 45% in eligible patients would indicate potential usefulness and an ORR of 20% would be the lower limit of interest, with α=0.10 and β=0.10, at least 24 patients were required.

RESULTS: Among 29 eligible patients, the ORR was 34% (90% confidence interval, 20-48). The median PFS was 3.5 months, whereas the median survival time was 7.3 months. The most common grade 3-4 toxicity was neutropenia (79%), although only one patient (3%) suffered from febrile neutropenia. Non-hematological toxicities were of moderate severity and no treatment-related death was observed.

CONCLUSIONS: This is the first prospective study of AMR combined with CBDCA for refractory relapsed SCLC, which was effective and well tolerated. However, further investigation of this regimen is warranted.

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