JOURNAL ARTICLE

Hyperglycemia: an independent risk factor for poor outcome in children with traumatic brain injury*

Benjamin Elkon, Jay Riva Cambrin, Eliotte Hirshberg, Susan L Bratton
Pediatric Critical Care Medicine 2014, 15 (7): 623-31
24849146

OBJECTIVE: We sought 1) to describe the severity and duration of hyperglycemia among surviving and dying children after traumatic brain injury; 2) to evaluate whether persistent severe hyperglycemia (averaged blood glucose > 200 mg/dL [11 mmol/L] during the first 12 hr after injury) is independently associated with poor Glasgow Outcome Score; and 3) to evaluate different definitions and the prevalence of poor Glasgow Outcome Score to better understand measurement and potential hyperglycemia treatment evaluation.

DESIGN: Retrospective cohort.

SETTING: Level I American College of Surgery verified pediatric trauma center.

PATIENTS: Children admitted to intensive care with moderate-to-severe traumatic brain injury.

INTERVENTIONS: None.

MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: Time course for glucose changes was compared by survival and blood glucose groups. Twelve-hour averaged patient blood glucoses were categorized as persistent: severe hyperglycemia (> 200 mg/dL [11 mmol/L]), moderate hyperglycemia (161-200 mg/dL [9-11 mmol/L]), mild hyperglycemia (110-160 mg/dL [6-9 mmol/L]), normal glycemia (80-109 mg/dL [4-6 mmol/L]), or hypoglycemia (< 80 mg/dL [< 4 mmol/L]). Among 271 children, less than 1% had hypoglycemia and were excluded from further analysis. Seven percent had normal, 49% had mild, 24% had moderate, and 20% had severe blood glucose elevation. Among dying children (n = 44, 16%), the mean blood glucose at 20-24 hours after injury was significantly greater compared with survivors (150 vs 113 mg/dL [8 vs 6 mmol/L]) but by 29-32 hours, no longer significantly differed (112 vs 102 mg/dL [6 mmol/L]). Sixty-eight percent of children with severe blood glucose elevation had a poor outcome, whereas good outcomes at discharge occurred in 87% with mild or moderate blood glucose elevation. Severe blood glucose elevation was associated with a 3.5-fold increased adjusted odds ratio of poor outcome (95% CI, 1.2-10.3) compared with mild blood glucose elevation adjusted for injury severity and cardiorespiratory instability.

CONCLUSIONS: Duration of severe blood glucose elevation (blood glucose > 200 mg/dL [11 mmol/L]) was brief but remained independently associated with poor outcome.

Full Text Links

Find Full Text Links for this Article

Discussion

You are not logged in. Sign Up or Log In to join the discussion.

Related Papers

Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read
24849146
×

Save your favorite articles in one place with a free QxMD account.

×

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"