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Diffuse idiopathic skeletal hyperostosis: A review.

BACKGROUND: Diffuse idiopathic skeletal hyperostosis (DISH) is a systemic noninflammatory disease characterized by ossification of the entheses.

METHODS: This paper reviews the etiopathogenesis, epidemiology, clinical features, differential diagnosis, and treatment of DISH, based on current available literature.

RESULTS: Exact prevalence and incidence of DISH remains undetermined. Many external and genetic factors have been reported as being contributors to the pathogenesis of DISH. Current theories focus on the pathologic calcification of the anterior longitudinal ligament of the spine as the main physiopathological mechanism of disease. Clinical features are variable from monoarticular sinovitis to airway obstruction, and can be associated to systemic conditions. Comorbidities include obesity, hypertension, diabetes mellitus, hyperinsulinemia, dyslipidemia, and hyperuricemia according to a number of reports.

CONCLUSIONS: DISH is a disease which involves the calcification of the anterior longitudinal ligament of the spine and can be associated with numerous clinical presentations and comorbidities.

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