Comparison of two- and three-dimensional transthoracic echocardiography to cardiac magnetic resonance imaging for assessment of paravalvular regurgitation after transcatheter aortic valve implantation

Ertunc Altiok, Michael Frick, Christian G Meyer, Ghazi Al Ateah, Andreas Napp, Annemarie Kirschfink, Mohammad Almalla, Shahran Lotfi, Michael Becker, Lena Herich, Walter Lehmacher, Rainer Hoffmann
American Journal of Cardiology 2014 June 1, 113 (11): 1859-66
This study evaluated 2-dimensional (2D) transthoracic echocardiography (TTE) using Valve Academic Research Consortium-2 (VARC-2) criteria and 3-dimensional (3D) TTE for assessment of aortic regurgitation (AR) after transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI) in comparison with cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) imaging. In 71 patients, 2D TTE, 3D TTE, and CMR imaging were performed to assess AR severity after TAVI. Using 2D TTE, AR severity was graded according to VARC-2 criteria and regurgitant volume (RVol) was determined. Three-dimensional color Doppler TTE allowed direct planimetry of the vena contracta area of the paravalvular regurgitation jet and calculation of the RVol as product with the velocity-time integral. RVol by CMR imaging was measured by phase-contrast velocity mapping in the ascending aorta. After TAVI, mean RVol determined by CMR imaging was 9.2 ± 9.6 ml/beat and mean regurgitant fraction was 13.3 ± 10.3%. AR was assessed as none or mild in 58 patients (82%) by CMR imaging. Correlation of 3D TTE and CMR imaging on RVol was better than correlation of 2D TTE and CMR imaging (r = 0.895 vs 0.558, p <0.001). There was good agreement between RVol by CMR imaging and by 3D TTE (mean bias = 2.4 ml/beat). Kappa on grading of AR severity was 0.357 between VARC-2 and CMR imaging versus 0.446 between 3D TTE and CMR imaging. Intraobserver variability for analysis of RVol of AR after TAVI was 73.5 ± 52.2% by 2D TTE, 16.7 ± 21.9% by 3D TTE, and 2.2 ± 2.0% by CMR imaging. In conclusion, 2D TTE considering VARC-2 criteria has limitations in the grading of AR severity after TAVI when CMR imaging is used for comparison. Three-dimensional TTE allows quantification of AR with greater accuracy than 2D TTE. Observer variability on RVol after TAVI is considerable using 2D TTE, significantly less using 3D TTE, and very low using CMR imaging.

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