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Topical retinoids in skin ageing: a focused update with reference to sun-induced epidermal vitamin A deficiency.

Vitamin A is an important constituent of the epidermis, where it plays a crucial role in epidermal turnover. A deficiency of epidermal vitamin A may be the consequence of nutritional vitamin A deficiency, exposure to sunlight or any UV source, oxidative stress or chronological ageing. As a consequence, any treatment aiming at increasing epidermal vitamin A would exert a protective effect against these deleterious conditions. Retinoids may counteract some deleterious actions of UV radiation by physical and biological mechanisms. Topical natural retinoic acid precursors such as retinaldehyde or retinol are less irritant than acidic retinoids and may prevent epidermal vitamin A deficiency due to nutritional deficiency, exposure to sunlight or any condition leading to free radical production. Retinoids may be combined with other compounds with complementary actions against ageing, nutritional deficiency and cancer, such as antioxidants, to potentiate their beneficial effects in the skin.

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Group 7SearchHeart failure treatmentPapersTopicsCollectionsEffects of Sodium-Glucose Cotransporter 2 Inhibitors for the Treatment of Patients With Heart Failure Importance: Only 1 class of glucose-lowering agents-sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitors-has been reported to decrease the risk of cardiovascular events primarily by reducingSeptember 1, 2017: JAMA CardiologyAssociations of albuminuria in patients with chronic heart failure: findings in the ALiskiren Observation of heart Failure Treatment study.CONCLUSIONS: Increased UACR is common in patients with heart failure, including non-diabetics. Urinary albumin creatininineJul, 2011: European Journal of Heart FailureRandomized Controlled TrialEffects of Liraglutide on Clinical Stability Among Patients With Advanced Heart Failure and Reduced Ejection Fraction: A Randomized Clinical Trial.Review

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