A comparative study of phosphate binders in patients with end stage kidney disease undergoing hemodialysis

Viken A Prajapati, Varsha J Galani, Pankaj R Shah
Saudi Journal of Kidney Diseases and Transplantation 2014, 25 (3): 530-8
In the present study, a comparative evaluation of the effects of calcium acetate, calcium carbonate, sevelamer hydrochloride and lanthanum carbonate was carried out in 120 patients with end stage kidney disease (ESKD) undergoing hemodialysis. Biochemical parameters, like serum phosphorous, serum calcium and serum alkaline phosphatase level and intact parathyroid hormone level, were measured. A statistically significant reduction in serum phosphorous, serum calcium, calcium × phosphorous and serum alkaline phosphatase level were observed with all phosphate binders during 3 months of treatment. Reduction in serum phosphorous were observed with calcium acetate (1.5 mg/dL), calcium carbonate (1.3 mg/dL), sevelamer hydrochloride (2.1 mg/dL) and lanthanum carbonate (1.79 mg/dL). The reduction of serum alkaline phosphatase was observed more commonly with sevelamer (107.37 IU/L) and lanthanum (104.33 IU/L) treatments than with calcium acetate (93.9 IU/L) and calcium carbonate (86.57 IU/L). There was no statistically significant change in serum calcium observed with sevelamer and lanthanum treatments, while calcium-based phosphate binders caused a significant rise in the serum calcium level. Serum intact parathyroid hormone level was significantly reduced with all phosphate binder treatments. This decline was highest with sevelamer and lowest with calcium carbonate. All treatments were well tolerated and safety profiles were consistent with previous reports in hemodialysis patients. It is concluded that all phosphate binders are safe and effective for the treatment of hyperphosphatemia in patients with ESKD undergoing hemodialysis. However, sevelamer hydrochloride seems to be superior among all with lowering incidence of hypercalcemia.

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