In vitro and in vivo activities of piperacillin-tazobactam and meropenem at different inoculum sizes of ESBL-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae

Y Harada, Y Morinaga, N Kaku, S Nakamura, N Uno, H Hasegawa, K Izumikawa, S Kohno, K Yanagihara
Clinical Microbiology and Infection 2014, 20 (11): O831-9
The inoculum effect is a laboratory phenomenon in which the minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) of an antibiotic is increased when a large number of organisms are exposed. Due to the emergence of extended-spectrum β-lactamase-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae (ESBL-Kpn) infections, the inoculum effect of ESBL-Kpn on β-lactams was studied in vitro and in vivo using an experimental model of pneumonia. The in vitro inoculum effect of 45 clinical ESBL-Kpn isolates on β-lactams was evaluated at standard (10(5) CFU/mL) and high (10(7) CFU/mL) organism concentrations. The MIC50 of piperacillin-tazobactam, cefotaxime and cefepime was increased eight-fold or more and that of meropenem was increased two-fold. The in vivo inoculum effect was evaluated in an ESBL-Kpn pneumonia mouse model treated with bacteriostatic effect-adjusted doses of piperacillin-tazobactam (1000 mg/kg four times daily, %T>MIC; 32.60%) or meropenem (100 mg/kg twice daily, %T>MIC; 28.65%) at low/standard (10(4) CFU/mouse) and high (10(6) CFU/mouse) inocula. In mice administered a low inoculum, no mice died after treatment with piperacillin-tazobactam or meropenem, whereas all the control mice died. In contrast, in the high inoculum model, all mice in the piperacillin-tazobactam-treated group died, whereas all meropenem-treated mice survived and had a decreased bacterial load in the lungs and no invasion into the blood. In conclusion, meropenem was more resistant to the inoculum effect of ESBL-Kpn than piperacillin-tazobactam both in vitro and in vivo. In the management of severe pneumonia caused by ESBL-Kpn, carbapenems may be the drugs of choice to achieve a successful outcome.


You are not logged in. Sign Up or Log In to join the discussion.

Related Papers

Available on the App Store

Available on the Play Store
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"