JOURNAL ARTICLE

[Changes in blood lymphocytes in sepsis patients]

Huilin Liu, Guihua Liu, Zhaoxing Tian
Zhonghua Wei Zhong Bing Ji Jiu Yi Xue 2014, 26 (3): 148-52
24809143

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the change in blood lymphocyte levels and lymphocyte percentage in critical patients, including those with non-infectious systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS), sepsis and severe sepsis.

METHODS: Clinical data of 423 patients admitted to intensive care unit (ICU) of Department of Emergency of Peking University Third Hospital from January 2011 to September 2013 were retrospectively analyzed. Among these patients, there were 54 with non-infectious SIRS, 177 with sepsis and 192 with severe sepsis. 150 of them died, and 273 survived. The white blood count (WBC), neutrophil (N), lymphocyte count, lymphocyte percentage, lactic acid,serum high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) and procalcitonin (PCT) were determined at admission, and acute physiology and chronic health evaluation II (APACHE II) was estimated. The patients were divided into different groups according to diagnosis and prognosis to compare the value of the indexes, and the correlation between lymphocyte count and other markers were analyzed by Spearman relative analysis.

RESULTS: The older the patients, the more severe the disease. In the non-infective SIRS, sepsis and severe sepsis groups, APACHE II scores (7.78 ± 3.72, 13.85 ± 7.22,24.00 ± 9.79), time of stay in hospital (days: 6.0 (1.0, 9.0), 12.0 (8.0, 22.0), 19.5 (7.0, 29.0)], the mortality rate (0, 10.2%, 52.6%), WBC ( x 109/L: 7.59 ± 3.27, 8.94 ± 3.95, 10.32 ± 5.50), N (0.685 ± 0.132, 0.778 ± 0.135,0.831 ±0.086), hs-CRP (mg/L: 4.60 (2.80, 7.52), 23.58 (13.49, 49.22), 59.77 (19.36, 110.62)] and PCT[j.Lg/L: 0.05 (0.05, 0.05), 0.09 (0.05, 0.61), 0.63 (0.10, 5.25)] showed gradually increasing tendency (all P=0.000). Serum lymphocyte count levels (X 109/L: 1.53 (0.89, 1.88), 0.90 (0.65, 1.42) and 0.80 (0.50, 1.12)], lymphocyte percentage (0.225 ± 0.122, 0.138 ± 0.097, 0.106 ± 0.070) showed gradually decreasing tendency (P<0.05 or P<0.01). There was significant difference in blood lactic acid among three groups [blood lactic acid were 2.40 ( 1.30, 5.10),1.10 (0.80, 2.00) and 1.40 (1.00, 2.50) mmol/L in the non-infective SIRS, sepsis and severe sepsis groups, respectively, P=0.000). Age (years old: 76.71 ± 12.21 vs. 73.21 ± 14.49), APACHE ll score (24.69 ± 9.58 vs. 13.91 ± 8.41),time of stay in hospital [days: 12.0 (4.0, 28.0) vs. 11.0 (8.0, 22.0) J, WBC (X 109/L: 10.29 ± 5.82 vs. 8.89 ± 3.98), N (0.809 ± 0.130 vs. 0. 776 ± 0.120), lactic acid [mmol/L: 1.80 (1.10, 2.90) vs. 1.30 (0.90, 2.49) J, hs-CRP [mg/L:50.94 (19.21, 97.13) vs. 21.71 (6.39, 54.40)] and PCT [J.Lg/L: 0.74 (0.13, 5.83) vs. 0.08 (0.05, 0.59)] levels in the death group were higher than those in the survival group (P<0.05 or P<0.01), serum lymphocyte count levels [X 109/L: 0.90 (0.50, 1.29) vs. 1.05 (0.70, 1.54)], lymphocyte percentage (0.123 ±0.098 vs. 0.143 ±0.097) level in the death group were obviously lower than those in the survival group (P<0.01 and P<0.05). Serum lymphocyte count levels were negative correlated with N (r= -0.597, P=0.000), hs-CRP (r= -0.298, P=0.000), PCT (r=-0.304, P=0.000), APACHE ll (r=-0.124, P=0.000), and positively correlated with lymphocyte percentage (r=0.691, P=0.000), and non correlations was found with WBC (r=0.082, P=0.091) and lactic acid (r=0.073, P=0.132).

CONCLUSION: The serum lymphocyte levels in the critically ill patients are related with the severity of sepsis, and monitoring the change in lymphocyte may be an indicator for evaluating the illness and effect of treatment.

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