The Symbol Digit Modalities Test is an effective cognitive screen in pediatric onset multiple sclerosis (MS)

Leigh E Charvet, Rachel Beekman, Nneka Amadiume, Anita L Belman, Lauren B Krupp
Journal of the Neurological Sciences 2014 June 15, 341 (1-2): 79-84

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the Symbol Digit Modalities Test (SDMT) as a tool for identifying pediatric-onset MS patients at risk for cognitive impairment.

BACKGROUND: The SDMT is a brief measure of cognitive processing speed that is often used in adult MS patients. Approximately one-third of pediatric-onset MS patients have cognitive impairment and there is a need for an effective screening instrument.

DESIGN/METHODS: Seventy (70) consecutive outpatients with pediatric-onset MS underwent clinical evaluations including the SDMT and were compared to those with other pediatric neurological diagnoses (OND, n=40) and healthy controls (HC, n=32). A subset of the MS group and all healthy controls completed neuropsychological evaluation within one year of SDMT administration.

RESULTS: The MS group performed worse on the SDMT compared to the HC group (p=0.02). Thirty-seven percent (37%) of the MS, 20% of the OND, and 9% of HC groups scored in the impaired range. For MS participants who underwent neuropsychological testing (n=31), the SDMT showed 77% sensitivity and 81% specificity for detecting neuropsychological impairment when administered within one year and reached 100% sensitivity when the interval was under two months (n=17). Overall, older age and increased disability predicted poorer SDMT performance (age r=-0.26, p=0.03) and the Expanded Disability Status Scale score or EDSS (r=-0.47, p<0.001), while a history of optic neuritis predicted better performance (p=0.04). Optical coherence tomography measures were not related to SDMT performance.

CONCLUSION: In this preliminary study, the SDMT was an effective brief screen for detecting cognitive impairment in pediatric-onset MS.

Full Text Links

Find Full Text Links for this Article


You are not logged in. Sign Up or Log In to join the discussion.

Related Papers

Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read

Save your favorite articles in one place with a free QxMD account.


Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"