RESEARCH SUPPORT, NON-U.S. GOV'T
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Diffusion-weighted imaging vs STIR turbo SE imaging: capability for quantitative differentiation of small-cell lung cancer from non-small-cell lung cancer.

OBJECTIVE: To compare the capability of differentiation of small-cell lung cancer (SCLC) from non-SCLC (NSCLC) between diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) and short tau inversion recovery (STIR) turbo spin-echo imaging.

METHODS: The institutional review board of Kobe University Hospital, Kobe, Japan, approved this study, and written informed consent was obtained from each patient. 49 patients with NSCLC (30 males and 19 females; mean age, 66.8 years) and 7 patients with SCLC (5 males and 2 females; mean age, 68.6 years) enrolled and underwent DWI and STIR. To quantitatively differentiate SCLC from NSCLC, apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) values on DWI and contrast ratios (CRs) between cancer and muscle on STIR were evaluated. ADC values and CRs were then compared between the two cell types by Mann-Whitney's U-tests, and the diagnostic performances were compared by McNemar's test.

RESULTS: There were significant differences of mean ADC values (p < 0.001) and mean CRs (p = 0.003). With adopted threshold values, the specificity (85.7%) and accuracy (85.7%) of DWI were higher than those of STIR (specificity, 63.3%; p = 0.001 and accuracy, 66.1%; p = 0.001). In addition, the accuracy of combination of both indexes (94.6%; p = 0.04) could significantly improve as compared with DWI alone.

CONCLUSION: DWI is more useful for the differentiation of SCLC from NSCLC than STIR, and their combination can significantly improve the accuracy in this setting.

ADVANCES IN KNOWLEDGE: Pulmonary MRI, including DWI and STIR, had a potential of the suggestion of the possibility as SCLC.

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