Laboratory abnormalities in CKD-MBD: markers, predictors, or mediators of disease?

Pieter Evenepoel, Mariano Rodriguez, Markus Ketteler
Seminars in Nephrology 2014, 34 (2): 151-63
Chronic kidney disease-mineral and bone disorder (CKD-MBD) is characterized by bone abnormalities, vascular calcification, and an array of laboratory abnormalities. The latter classically include disturbances in the parathyroid hormone/vitamin D axis. More recently, fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23) and klotho also have been identified as important regulators of mineral metabolism. Klotho deficiency and high circulating FGF23 levels precede secondary hyperparathyroidism in CKD patients. Levels of FGF23 and parathyroid hormone increase along the progression of CKD to maintain mineral homeostasis and to overcome end-organ resistance. It is hard to define when the increase of both hormones becomes maladaptive. CKD-MBD is associated with adverse outcomes including cardiovascular disease and mortality. This review summarizes the complex pathophysiology of CKD-MBD and outlines which laboratory abnormalities represent biomarkers of disease severity, which laboratory abnormalities are predictors of cardiovascular disease, and which laboratory abnormalities should be considered (direct) uremic toxins exerting organ damage. This information may help to streamline current and future therapeutic efforts.

Full Text Links

Find Full Text Links for this Article


You are not logged in. Sign Up or Log In to join the discussion.

Related Papers

Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read

Save your favorite articles in one place with a free QxMD account.


Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"