The role of Human Papilloma Virus (HPV) vaccination in the prevention of anal cancer in individuals with Human Immunodeficiency Virus-1 (HIV-1) infection

Luis F Barroso
Therapeutic Advances in Vaccines 2013, 1 (2): 81-92
The incidence of anal cancer is increasing in the general population and especially in high-risk groups. A total of 90% of anal cancers are caused by human papilloma virus (HPV) infection of the anal canal. Similar to cervical cancer, anal cancer progresses through a predictable series of premalignant stages before resulting in invasive cancer; this process begins with persistent HPV infection. The HPV vaccine represents a promising strategy to combat the increasing incidence of anal cancer. Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) predisposes people to persistent HPV infection, dysplasia, and subsequent anal cancer. Patients infected with HIV should be targeted for vaccination against HPV. There are difficulties in targeting this population, the most notable being that the optimal age for vaccination is prior to identification with any high-risk groups. Universal vaccination against HPV represents the best strategy to achieve maximum protection against anal cancer in high-risk groups.

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