Circulating concentrations of soluble receptor for AGE are associated with age and AGER gene polymorphisms in children with newly diagnosed type 1 diabetes

Kirsi M Salonen, Samppa J Ryhänen, Josephine M Forbes, Taina Härkönen, Jorma Ilonen, Antti-Pekka Laine, Per-Henrik Groop, Mikael Knip
Diabetes Care 2014, 37 (7): 1975-81

OBJECTIVE: We analyzed the relationship among soluble receptor for advanced glycation end products (sRAGEs), the clinical phenotype, HLA genotype, and risk-associated single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the AGER gene in a large population of Finnish children with newly diagnosed type 1 diabetes.

RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: Samples from 2,115 clinically phenotyped children <15 years of age in whom type 1 diabetes was diagnosed and 316 control subjects were analyzed for sRAGEs. Three SNPs of AGER, previously associated with HLA-DR/DQ haplotype independent diabetes risk (rs2070600, rs9469089, and rs17493811), were analyzed in 1,390 affected subjects.

RESULTS: Children with type 1 diabetes and control subjects had similar sRAGE concentrations (1,171 vs. 1,153 pg/mL, P = 0.48). There was a correlation between age at diagnosis and serum sRAGE concentrations (r = 0.10, P < 0.001) among the patients but not among the control subjects. Children <2 years of age had the lowest concentrations in the diabetic population (1,027 vs. 1,181 pg/mL, P < 0.001) and the highest among the control subjects (1,329 vs. 1,140 pg/mL, P = 0.04). Ketoacidosis at diagnosis was associated with reduced concentrations (1,086 vs. 1,190 pg/mL, P < 0.001). HLA DR3/DR4 heterozygosity and the DR3 allele were associated with reduced sRAGE concentrations. The predisposing AA genotype of rs2070600 was associated with decreased sRAGE concentrations, while the protective CC genotype of rs9469089 was linked to increased concentrations.

CONCLUSIONS: Age and AGER polymorphisms are associated with the circulating sRAGE concentration among children with type 1 diabetes. The observations of reduced sRAGE concentrations in young children, in those with ketoacidosis, and in carriers of the high-risk HLA DR3/DR4 genotype suggest that decreased sRAGE concentration reflects a more aggressive disease phenotype.

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