Two years outcome of isolated distal deep vein thrombosis

Michelangelo Sartori, Ludovica Migliaccio, Elisabetta Favaretto, Gualtiero Palareti, Benilde Cosmi
Thrombosis Research 2014, 134 (1): 36-40

BACKGROUND: Isolated distal deep vein thrombosis (IDDVT) is frequently found in symptomatic outpatients, but its long term outcome is still uncertain.

AIMS: To assess IDDVT long term outcome and the impact of IDDVT characteristics on outcome.

METHODS: In a prospective, single center study we enrolled symptomatic outpatients in whom IDDVT was detected by whole-leg compression ultrasonography. Patients with provoked IDDVT were treated with low molecular weight heparins (LMWH) for 30 days while those with unprovoked IDDVT received with vitamin K antagonists (VKA) for three months. The primary end-point was the rate of the composite of pulmonary embolism (PE), proximal deep vein thrombosis (DVT), and IDDVT recurrence/extension during 24 month follow-up.

RESULTS: 90 patients (age 61 ± 18, male 48.9%) were enrolled. Risk factors for thrombosis were reduced mobility (34.4%), obesity (25.3%), surgery (15.6%), and previous DVT (15.6%) and cancer in 8 patients (8.9%). Eighty-eight patients were treated (56 with LMWH and 32 with VKA). During follow-up (median 24 ± 2 months), 17 events were recorded, which included 3 PE (two in cancer patients), 4 proximal DVTs (one in cancer patient) and 10 IDDVT. Male sex (HR 4.73 CI95%: 1.55-14.5; p=0.006) and cancer (HR 5.47 CI95%: 1.76-17.6; p=0.003) were associated with a higher risk of complications, whereas IDDVT anatomical characteristics, anticoagulant therapy type, and provoked IDDVT were not.

CONCLUSIONS: The risk of recurrent venous thromboembolism after IDDVT may be relevant in male patients or in patients with active cancer. Larger studies are needed to address this issue.

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