New raltegravir resistance pathways induce broad cross-resistance to all currently used integrase inhibitors

Isabelle Malet, Laura Gimferrer Arriaga, Anna Artese, Giosuè Costa, Lucia Parrotta, Stefano Alcaro, Olivier Delelis, Ahmed Tmeizeh, Christine Katlama, Marc-Antoine Valantin, Francesca Ceccherini-Silberstein, Vincent Calvez, Anne-Geneviève Marcelin
Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy 2014, 69 (8): 2118-22

OBJECTIVES: The possibility of replacing raltegravir or elvitegravir with dolutegravir in heavily treatment-experienced patients failing on raltegravir/elvitegravir has been evaluated in VIKING trials. All studied patients failed by the most common pathways, Y143, Q148 and N155, and dolutegravir demonstrated efficacy except for Q148 viruses. The aim of this study was to explore, in the same way, the behaviour of dolutegravir in comparison with raltegravir and elvitegravir against the atypical resistance integrase profiles, G118R and F121Y, described in HIV-1 patients failing on raltegravir therapy.

METHODS: The behaviour of integrases with mutations G118R and F121Y towards raltegravir, elvitegravir and dolutegravir was analysed by evaluating phenotypic susceptibility and by means of in silico techniques (investigating binding affinities and the stabilization of the inhibitors in terms of their hydrogen bond network).

RESULTS: The phenotypic analysis of G118R and F121Y showed high resistance to raltegravir, elvitegravir and dolutegravir with a fold change >100 when the clinically derived integrase was used, and resistance was also seen when mutations were tested alone in an NL43 backbone, but more often with a lower fold change. In silico, results showed that G118R and F121Y enzymes were associated with reduced binding affinities to each of the inhibitors and with a decreased number of hydrogen bonds compared with the wild-type complexes.

CONCLUSIONS: This study showed that G118R and F121Y mutations, rarely described in patients failing on raltegravir, induced broad cross-resistance to all currently used integrase inhibitors. These results are in accordance with our thermodynamic and geometric analysis indicating decreased stability compared with the wild-type complexes.

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