VvMATE1 and VvMATE2 encode putative proanthocyanidin transporters expressed during berry development in Vitis vinifera L

Ricardo Pérez-Díaz, Malgorzata Ryngajllo, Jorge Pérez-Díaz, Hugo Peña-Cortés, José A Casaretto, Enrique González-Villanueva, Simón Ruiz-Lara
Plant Cell Reports 2014, 33 (7): 1147-59
VvMATE1 and VvMATE2 encode putative PA transporters expressed during seed development in grapevine. The subcellular localization of these MATE proteins suggests different routes for the intracellular transport of PAs. Proanthocyanidins (PAs), also called condensed tannins, protect plants against herbivores and are important quality components of many fruits. PAs biosynthesis is part of the flavonoid pathway that also produces anthocyanins and flavonols. In grape fruits, PAs are present in seeds and skin tissues. PAs are synthesized in the cytoplasm and accumulated into the vacuole and apoplast; however, little is known about the mechanisms involved in the transport of these compounds to such cellular compartments. A gene encoding a Multidrug And Toxic compound Extrusion (MATE) family protein suggested to transport anthocyanins-named VvMATE1-was used to identify a second gene of the MATE family, VvMATE2. Analysis of their deduced amino acid sequences and the phylogenetic relationship with other MATE-like proteins indicated that VvMATE1 and VvMATE2 encode putative PA transporters. Subcellular localization assays in Arabidopsis protoplasts transformed with VvMATE-GFP fusion constructs along with organelle-specific markers revealed that VvMATE1 is localized in the tonoplast whereas VvMATE2 is localized in the Golgi complex. Major expression of both genes occurs during the early stages of seed development concomitant with the accumulation of PAs. Both genes are poorly expressed in the skin of berries while VvMATE2 is also expressed in leaves. The presence of putative cis-acting elements in the promoters of VvMATE1 and VvMATE2 may explain the differential transcriptional regulation of these genes in grapevine. Altogether, these results suggest that these MATE proteins could mediate the transport and accumulation of PAs in grapevine through different routes and cellular compartments.

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