Effects of barnidipine on blood pressure and left ventricular diastolic function in patients with hypertension and metabolic syndrome: A 12-week, open-label noncomparison study

Fabio Angeli, Salvatore Repaci, Claudia Borgioni, Mariagrazia Sardone, Aurelio Scotti, Paolo Verdecchia
Current Therapeutic Research, Clinical and Experimental 2008, 69 (3): 207-20

BACKGROUND: Barnidipine is one of a new generation of dihydropyridine calcium-channel blockers. Despite evidence of favorable effects on blood pressure (BP) and insulin sensitivity, this drug has rarely been tested in hypertensive patients with metabolic syndrome (MS).

OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of barnidipine on BP and left ventricular (LV) diastolic function in patients with hypertension and MS.

METHODS: Consecutive subjects aged 18 to 75 years with systolic BP (SBP) of 140 to 179 mm Hg and/or diastolic BP (DBP) of 90 to 109 mm Hg and MS (based on Adult Treatment Panel III criteria) were assessed for inclusion in the study. Lifestyle changes according to current guidelines were recommended and barnidipine monotherapy 10 mg daily was initiated. All patients entered a 2-week run-in period. After a 6-week treatment period, the daily dosage was doubled for the remainder of the study in patients whose BP remained uncontrolled (≥140/≥90 mm Hg). We assessed the glycolipidic profile and LV structure and function using standard Doppler and tissue Doppler imaging (TDI) echocardiography before and after 12 weeks of treatment. Ambulatory BP records and electrocardiographic and echocardiographic tracings were coded and shipped to a central laboratory for blinded analysis. Possible adverse events (AEs) were recorded at predetermined intervals throughout the follow-up period and at unplanned intervals whenever an AE became known to the investigators.

RESULTS: Thirty-four consecutive patients were assessed for inclusion. Thirty consecutive patients (20 men, 10 women; mean {SD| age, 55.9 {10.3| years; 5 current smokers) were included in the study. At study entry, mean office SBP was 146 mm Hg, DBP was 87 mm Hg, and heart rate was 72 beats/min. At the study end, mean office SBP/DBP was <140/90 mm Hg in 20 patients (66.7%). From baseline to study end, 24-hour ambulatory BP decreased significantly by 12 and 8 mm Hg for SBP and DBP, respectively (both, P = 0.001). The smoothness index was 0.92 for SBP and 0.82 for DBP. Fasting plasma glucose concentration decreased significantly from 110 to 104 mg/dL (P = 0.001). Total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol concentrations did not change significantly. From baseline to study end, there were no significant changes in LV structure or systolic function (LV mass, 50.7 vs 50.6 g/ht(2.7); LV diastolic/systolic diameters, 47.50/29.80 vs 48.40/30.76 mm; wall motion score index, 1.0 vs 1.0; ejection fraction, 61% vs 60%), while the peak E/A velocity ratio on TDI increased from 1.078 to 1.245 (P = 0.009). No AEs (including AEs reflected by chemistry values) either unrelated or related to treatment were noted during the 12-week duration of the study.

CONCLUSIONS: In these hypertensive patients with MS, a 12-week treatment period with barnidipine in addition to lifestyle modifications was associated with significant reductions in 24-hour BP and BP variability, reduction in plasma glucose concentration, and improvement in LV diastolic relaxation. No significant changes in lipid concentrations, LV structure, or systolic function were found.

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