Journal Article
Review
Add like
Add dislike
Add to saved papers

Coccydynia: an overview of the anatomy, etiology, and treatment of coccyx pain.

BACKGROUND: Despite its small size, the coccyx has several important functions. Along with being the insertion site for multiple muscles, ligaments, and tendons, it also serves as one leg of the tripod-along with the ischial tuberosities-that provides weight-bearing support to a person in the seated position. The incidence of coccydynia (pain in the region of the coccyx) has not been reported, but factors associated with increased risk of developing coccydynia include obesity and female gender.

METHODS: This article provides an overview of the anatomy, physiology, and treatment of coccydynia.

RESULTS: Conservative treatment is successful in 90% of cases, and many cases resolve without medical treatment. Treatments for refractory cases include pelvic floor rehabilitation, manual manipulation and massage, transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation, psychotherapy, steroid injections, nerve block, spinal cord stimulation, and surgical procedures.

CONCLUSION: A multidisciplinary approach employing physical therapy, ergonomic adaptations, medications, injections, and, possibly, psychotherapy leads to the greatest chance of success in patients with refractory coccyx pain. Although new surgical techniques are emerging, more research is needed before their efficacy can be established.

Full text links

We have located links that may give you full text access.
Can't access the paper?
Try logging in through your university/institutional subscription. For a smoother one-click institutional access experience, please use our mobile app.

Related Resources

For the best experience, use the Read mobile app

Mobile app image

Get seemless 1-tap access through your institution/university

For the best experience, use the Read mobile app

All material on this website is protected by copyright, Copyright © 1994-2024 by WebMD LLC.
This website also contains material copyrighted by 3rd parties.

By using this service, you agree to our terms of use and privacy policy.

Your Privacy Choices Toggle icon

You can now claim free CME credits for this literature searchClaim now

Get seemless 1-tap access through your institution/university

For the best experience, use the Read mobile app