JOURNAL ARTICLE

[Investigation of antibacterial activity of topical antimicrobials against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus]

Shengyong Cui, Lizhong Han, Shuzhen Xiao, Xu Chen, Qingxuan Chang, Yan Liu, Xiong Zhang
Zhonghua Shao Shang za Zhi, Zhonghua Shaoshang Zazhi, Chinese Journal of Burns 2014, 30 (1): 21-4
24684985

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the antibacterial activity of silver sulfadiazine (SD-Ag), mupirocin, and clotrimazole used alone or in combination against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) isolated from burn wounds.

METHODS: Eighteen MRSA isolates from wound excretion of 18 burn patients hospitalized in our unit from July to December 2011 were collected continuously and non-repetitively. (1) Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC), 50% MIC (MIC50), and 90% MIC (MIC90) of SD-Ag, mupirocin, and clotrimazole used alone, those of SD-Ag and mupirocin used in combination, and those of SD-Ag, mupirocin, and clotrimazole used in combination to MRSA were determined by checkerboard agar dilution method. (2) Fractional inhibitory concentration (FIC) index was calculated to determine the combined effect of SD-Ag plus mupirocin, and SD-Ag plus mupirocin and clotrimazole. Synergy with FIC index less than or equal to 0.5 or additivity with FIC index more than 0.5 and less than or equal to 1.0 was regarded as effective, and indifference with FIC index more than 1.0 and less than or equal to 4.0 or antagonism with FIC index more than 4.0 was regarded as ineffective. The effective ratio was compared with overall ratio (assumed as 0) by unilateral binomial distribution test.

RESULTS: The MIC, MIC50, and MIC90 of SD-Ag, mupirocin, and clotrimazole used alone against 18 MRSA isolates were respectively 8, 8, 16 µg/mL; 2, 16, 64 µg/mL; 2, 2, 2 µg/mL. MIC of antimicrobial agents used in combination decreased from 3.1% to 50.0% as compared with that of individual agent used alone. Compared with those of single application of SD-Ag and mupirocin, MIC50 of SD-Ag and that of mupirocin both decreased 75.0%, and MIC90 of them decreased 87.5% when SD-Ag and mupirocin were used in combination. Compared with those of single application of SD-Ag, mupirocin, and clotrimazole, MIC50 of SD-Ag, mupirocin, and clotrimazole respectively decreased 75.0%, 87.5%, and 50.0%; MIC90 of them respectively decreased 87.5%, 96.9%, and 50.0% when SD-Ag, mupirocin, and clotrimazole were used in combination. Among the 18 MRSA isolates, the combined effect of SD-Ag and mupirocin was synergic in 9 isolates, additive in 7 isolates, indifferent in 2 isolates, and antagonistic in 0 isolate; the combined effect of SD-Ag, mupirocin, and clotrimazole was additive in 16 isolates, indifferent in 2 isolates, and antagonistic in 0 isolate. There were statistically significant differences between effective ratio and overall ratio of 18 MRSA isolates treated with combined antimicrobial agents (P values all above 0.01).

CONCLUSIONS: For burn wounds at middle and late stages infected with Staphylococcus aureus or Staphylococcus aureus and Fungus, low dose of SD-Ag or combination of above-mentioned antimicrobial agents can effectively control infection and decrease the adverse effect of antimicrobial agents on wound healing.

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