Association of VDR-gene variants with factors related to the metabolic syndrome, type 2 diabetes and vitamin D deficiency

Nasser M Al-Daghri, Omar S Al-Attas, Khalid M Alkharfy, Nasiruddin Khan, Abdul Khader Mohammed, Benjamin Vinodson, Mohammed Ghouse Ahmed Ansari, Amal Alenad, Majed S Alokail
Gene 2014 June 1, 542 (2): 129-33
The prevalence of metabolic syndrome (MetS) is rising alarmingly in the Saudi Arabian population. This study was conducted to assess the association between vitamin D receptor (VDR) polymorphisms and genetic susceptibility to components of the metabolic syndrome, type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), and vitamin D deficiency in the Saudi Arabian population. Five-hundred-seventy Saudi individuals (285 MetS and 285 controls) were enrolled in this cross-sectional study. TaqI, BsmI, ApaI and FokI single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of the VDR gene were genotyped. The CT genotype and allele T of BsmI were associated with lower HDL-C levels [OR 0.60 (0.37, 0.96), p=0.03] and obesity [OR 1.4 (1.0, 1.90), p=0.04], respectively. The CT genotype and the dominant model CT+TT of BsmI were associated with increased risk of diabetes [OR 1.7 (1.2, 2.4), p=0.007], and [OR 1.5 (1.1, 2.2), p=0.01], respectively. On the contrary, the CT and CT+CC genotypes of FokI exhibited an association with a reduced risk of diabetes [OR 0.70 (0.49, 0.99), p=0.05] and [OR 0.67 (0.48, 0.94), p=0.02], respectively. The allele C of FokI was associated with lower risk of developing T2DM [OR 0.73 (0.56, 0.95), p=0.02]. The prevalence of vitamin D deficiency was lower in subjects with the AC genotype of ApaI [OR, 0.34 (0.14, 0.80), p=0.01]. Components of the MetS such as obesity, low HDL and T2DM were associated with the VDR gene. FokI and BsmI have protective and facilitative effects on the risk for T2DM, while the ApaI genotype was associated with reduced vitamin D deficiency.

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