Mono-symptomatic nocturnal enuresis in lebanese children: prevalence, relation with obesity, and psychological effect

Bassem Abu Merhi, Ahmad Hammoud, Fouad Ziade, Raymond Kamel, Mariam Rajab
Clinical Medicine Insights. Pediatrics 2014, 8: 5-9

INTRODUCTION: Nocturnal enuresis is involuntary urination while sleeping after a certain age, usually five years, when children should have established bladder control. The prevalence has been found to be up to 20% in five year old children, and it is considered the most common urological childhood complication.

MATERIAL AND METHODS: This study was conducted on Makassed School children aged 5-18 years. This was a two-step study, the first step was a questionnaire distributed to the children to be answered by their parents. The second step included individually meeting with every child who met the inclusion criteria and his/her parents and physically examining the child.

RESULTS: 11,440 questionnaires were distributed to school children aged 5-18 years, to be answered by their parents. Of the 7270 parents who responded back, 6620 reported no enuresis, 90 (1.25%) reported only diurnal enuresis, 107 (1.5%) reported diurnal and nocturnal enuresis, and 453 parents reported their child having nocturnal enuresis only. The data collected was analyzed according to age, sex, area, body mass index (BMI), and the PMQOL-SF score. The prevalence of mono-symptomatic nocturnal enuresis (MNE) in Lebanon was found to be 5.3%. The results showed that the prevalence of MNE is inversely proportional to age. The prevalence of male to female ratio was 1.4:1. As for the prevalence according to different geographic areas, the results have shown that the North had the majority of cases with 7.6% prevalence. Results showed that 82.4% of children had a score more than 50, and only 28% of parents had a score above 50.

DISCUSSION: The prevalence of nocturnal enuresis in Lebanon is lower than that in neighboring countries such as Turkey8 and Saudi Arabia,9 but higher than that in Italy10 and Hong Kong. Our study has managed to show the same results, with a peak in incidence at seven years then dropping back to 0% at the age of 16. Our study has shown a male to female predominance but the male to female ratio was 1.4:1, a value lower than that described in earlier studies. Our study has shown that more than 80% of children were psychologically affected whereas only less than 30% of parents were affected.

CONCLUSION: To our knowledge, this was the first study in Lebanon conducted to determine the prevalence of MNE. The relatively low prevalence rate found may be because of differences in genetic predisposition, psychosocial or environmental conditions, and traditional and cultural backgrounds. No relation was found between obesity and nocturnal enuresis. The psychological impact on children is significant but that on the parents is minimal.

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