Infants 1-90 days old hospitalized with human rhinovirus infection

Jeffrey M Bender, Charla S Taylor, Joven Cumpio, Susan M Novak, Rosemary C She, Evan A Steinberg, Elizabeth M Marlowe
Journal of Clinical Laboratory Analysis 2014, 28 (5): 349-52

BACKGROUND: Human rhinovirus (HRV) is a common cause of respiratory illness in children. The impact of HRV infection on 1- to 90-day-old infants is unclear. We hypothesized that HRV infection would be clinically similar to respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infection in the hospitalized infants.

METHODS: We conducted a retrospective study of hospitalized infants, who were 1-90 days old, with HRV or RSV within the Southern California Kaiser Permanente network over a 1-year period (August 2010 to October 2011).

RESULTS: We identified 245 hospitalized infants who underwent respiratory virus testing. HRV was found in 52 infants (21%) compared to 79 infants (32%) with RSV (P = 0.008). Infants with HRV infection experienced longer hospital stays compared to those with RSV (median length of stay 4 days vs. 3 days, P = 0.009) and had fewer short hospital stays ≤3 days (P = 0.029). There was a trend in infants with HRV infection to be younger (P = 0.071) and have more fevers (P = 0.052).

CONCLUSIONS: Recent advances in diagnostics allow for identification of a broad range of viral pathogens in infants. Compared to RSV, HRV was associated with longer hospital stays. Additional studies and improved, more specific testing, methods are needed to further define the effects of HRV infection in infants 1-90 days old.

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