[A new form of hereditary neurodegeneration with brain iron accumulation: clinical and molecular-genetic characteristics]

E Yu Zakharova, G E Rudenskaya
Zhurnal Nevrologii i Psikhiatrii Imeni S.S. Korsakova 2014, 114 (1): 4-12
Neurodegeneration with brain iron accumulation, type 4 (NBIA4, or MPAN) is an autosomal recessive disease produced by С19org12 mutations. NBIA group includes also most common NBIA1 or PKAN (formerly Hallervorden-Spatz disease) NBIA2 or PLAN, and few others. Common NBIA features are onset in childhood or adolescence, progressive movement disorders (spasticity, dystonia, parkinsonism), dysarthria, optic atrophy, cognitive and neuropsychiatric disorders, and MRI picture of iron accumulation in globus pallidum and substantia nigra. Though only recently recognized, NBIA4 was reported in many populations and seems to be not rare. We diagnosed NBIA4 in three non-consanguineous Russian families. Case 1, 19-year-old female, had slowly progressing leg spasticity since 12 yrs, moderate dystonia in neck, hands and feet since 17-18 yrs, optic atrophy detected in 18 yrs and mild cognitive impairment; MRI was normal in 14 yrs, but in 17 yrs showed typical NBIA signs. Case 2, 16-year-old male, had slowly progressing spasticity, dystonia, ataxia and mild dementia since 11-12 yrs; MRI was normal up to 16 yrs when NBIA signs appeared; optic atrophy was seen at the same age. In both patients homozygosity for C19orf12 mutation с.204_214del11 (Gly69ArgfsX10) was detected. The mutation is most common in Polish and other East European populations. Case 3 is atypical in several aspects. The patient is 35-year-old female with Usher syndrome, autosomal recessive disease including congenital sensorineural deafness and retinitis pigmentosa; her junior sister is also affected. MRI was performed because of headaches and unexpectedly detected NBIA picture (MRI in the sister could not be performed due to technical contra-indications). No NBIA symptoms were seen in 35 and in 36.5 yrs. Heterozygosity for the same C19orf2 mutation Gly69ArgfsX10 was detected in the patient, but not in the sister; allelic mutation was not found by now. We consider the case as co-existence of two independent disorders: typical Usher syndrome in two sisters and atypical, subclinical NBIA4 in senior one.

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