Composite Scale of Morningness: psychometric properties, validity with Munich ChronoType Questionnaire and age/sex differences in Poland

K S Jankowski
European Psychiatry: the Journal of the Association of European Psychiatrists 2015, 30 (1): 166-71
The present study aimed at testing psychometric properties of the Composite Scale of Morningness (CSM) and validating it with mid sleep on free days (MSF) derived from the Munich ChronoType Questionnaire (MCTQ) in Poland, along with analyzing age and sex differences in the CSM and MSF. A sample of 952 Polish residents (62.6% females) aged between 13 and 46 was tested. Additionally, a sample of 33 university students were given MCTQ and filled in a sleep diary for 8 days. MSF derived from MCTQ was related to the one from sleep diary (r=.44). The study revealed good reliability of the CSM (α=.84) and its validity: greater morningness preference was associated with earlier MSF from MCTQ (r=-.52). CSM scores were distributed over its full range, with a mean of 34, and did not differ between sexes, although females were earlier than males by 23minutes in MSF. Regarding age, eveningness estimated with both CSM and MSF was greatest in subjects aged 16-18years, and a shift toward eveningness during puberty and a shift back toward morningness in older age was observed. The Polish version of the CSM consisted of two components of morningness. Cutoff scores were: for evening types (lower 10%) 24 or less, for morning types (upper 10%) 43 or more. The Polish CSM presents good psychometric properties, which are similar to those reported in other language versions, and also presents sex/age patterns similar to those found previously.

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