JOURNAL ARTICLE

32 years' experience of peritoneal dialysis-related peritonitis in a university hospital

Sadie van Esch, Raymond T Krediet, Dirk G Struijk
Peritoneal Dialysis International 2014, 34 (2): 162-70
24584620

BACKGROUND: Peritonitis in peritoneal dialysis (PD) patients can lead to technique failure and contributes to infection-related mortality. Peritonitis prevention and optimization of treatment are therefore important in the care for PD patients. In the present study, we analyzed the incidence of peritonitis, causative pathogens, clinical outcomes, and trends in relation to three major treatment changes that occurred from 1979 onward: use of a disconnect system since 1988, daily mupirocin at the exit-site since 2001, and exclusive use of biocompatible dialysis solutions since 2004.

METHODS: In this analysis of prospectively collected data, we included peritonitis episodes from the start of PD at our center in August 1979 to July 2010. Incident PD patients were allocated to one of four groups: Group 1 - 182 patients experiencing 148 first peritonitis episodes between 1979 and 1987, before the introduction of the disconnect system; Group 2 - 352 patients experiencing 239 first episodes of peritonitis between 1988 and 2000, before implementation of daily mupirocin application at the catheter exit-site; Group 3 - 79 patients experiencing 50 first peritonitis episodes between 2001 and 2003, before the switch to biocompatible solutions; and Group 4-118 patients experiencing 91 first peritonitis episodes after 2004. Cephradine was used as initial antibiotic treatment.

RESULTS: In 32 years, 731 adult patients started PD, and 2234 episodes of peritonitis in total were diagnosed and treated. Of those episodes, 88% were cured with medical treatment only, and 10% resulted in catheter removal. In 3% of the episodes, the patient died during peritonitis. Median time to a first peritonitis episode increased from 40 days for group 1 to 150 for group 2, 269 for group 3, and 274 for group 4. The overall peritonitis rate and the gram-positive and gram-negative peritonitis rates showed a time-trend of decline. However, the duration of antibiotic treatment increased over time, with groups 3 and 4 having the longest duration of treatment, accompanied by a higher percentage of antibiotic switch. Increased resistance to cephradine was found for coagulase-negative Staphylococcus.

CONCLUSIONS: Peritonitis rates declined significantly over the years because of several changes in PD treatment. However, the need to change the initial antibiotic increased because of diminished antibiotic susceptibility rates over time. Nevertheless, the cure rate was high and remained stable during the entire period analyzed, and the death rate remained low. Consequently, peritonitis is a manageable complication of PD that cannot be considered a contraindication to this mode of renal replacement therapy.

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