Biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles using Bacillus subtilis EWP-46 cell-free extract and evaluation of its antibacterial activity

Palanivel Velmurugan, Mahudunan Iydroose, Mohmed Hanifa Abdul Kader Mohideen, Thankiah Selva Mohan, Min Cho, Byung-Taek Oh
Bioprocess and Biosystems Engineering 2014, 37 (8): 1527-34
This study highlights the ability of nitrate-reducing Bacillus subtilis EWP-46 cell-free extract used for preparation of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) by reduction of silver ions into nano silver. The production of AgNPs was optimized with several parameters such as hydrogen ion concentration, temperature, silver ion (Ag(+) ion) and time. The maximum AgNPs production was achieved at pH 10.0, temperature 60 °C, 1.0 mM Ag(+) ion and 720 min. The UV-Vis spectrum showed surface plasmon resonance peak at 420 nm, energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (SEM-EDX) spectra showed the presence of element silver in pure form. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) and transmission electron microscopy images illustrated the nanoparticle size, shape, and average particle size ranging from 10 to 20 nm. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy provided the evidence for the presence of biomolecules responsible for the reduction of silver ion, and X-ray diffraction analysis confirmed that the obtained nanoparticles were in crystalline form. SDS-PAGE was performed to identify the proteins and its molecular mass in the purified nitrate reductase from the cell-free extract. In addition, the minimum inhibitory concentration and minimum bactericidal concentration of AgNPs were investigated against gram-negative (Pseudomonas fluorescens) and gram-positive (Staphylococcus aureus) bacteria.

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