JOURNAL ARTICLE

Specific changes of gut commensal microbiota and TLRs during indomethacin-induced acute intestinal inflammation in rats

Evangelina Terán-Ventura, Mònica Aguilera, Patri Vergara, Vicente Martínez
Journal of Crohn's & Colitis 2014, 8 (9): 1043-54
24566169

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Gut microbiota is a contributing factor in the development and maintenance of intestinal inflammation, although precise cause-effect relationships have not been established. We assessed spontaneous changes of gut commensal microbiota and toll-like receptors (TLRs)-mediated host-bacterial interactions in a model of indomethacin-induced acute enteritis in rats.

METHODS: Male Spague-Dawley rats, maintained under conventional conditions, were used. Enteritis was induced by systemic indomethacin administration. During the acute phase of inflammation, animals were euthanized and ileal and ceco-colonic changes evaluated. Inflammation was assessed through disease activity parameters (clinical signs, macroscopic/microscopic scores and tissue levels of inflammatory markers). Microbiota (ileal and ceco-colonic) was characterized using fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) and analysis of 16s rDNA polymorphism. Host-bacterial interactions were assessed evaluating the ratio of bacterial adherence to the intestinal wall (FISH) and expression of TLRs 2 and 4 (RT-PCR).

RESULTS: After indomethacin, disease activity parameters increased, suggesting an active inflammation. Total bacterial counts were similar in vehicle- or indomethacin-treated animals. However, during inflammation the relative composition of the microbiota was altered. This dysbiotic state was characterized by an increase in the counts of Bacteroides spp., Enterobacteriaceae (in ileum and cecum-colon) and Clostridium spp. (in ileum). Bacterial wall adherence significantly increased during inflammation. In animals with enteritis, TLR-2 and -4 were up-regulated both in the ileum and the ceco-colonic region.

CONCLUSIONS: Gut inflammation implies qualitative changes in GCM, with simultaneous alterations in host-bacterial interactions. These observations further support a potential role for gut microbiota in the pathophysiology of intestinal inflammation.

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