(+)-Vitisin A inhibits osteoclast differentiation by preventing TRAF6 ubiquitination and TRAF6-TAK1 formation to suppress NFATc1 activation

Wen-Fei Chiou, Yu-Ling Huang, Yen-Wenn Liu
PloS One 2014, 9 (2): e89159
We recently reported that oral administration of a (+)-vitisin A-enriched product prepared from Vitis thunbergii obviously ameliorated bone loss in ovariectomized mice and (+)-vitisin A was able to inhibit receptor activator of NF-κB ligand (RANKL)-induced osteoclast differentiation in RAW264.7 cells. Here we further clarified the mechanism(s) by which (+)-vitisin A targets osteoclastic differentiation and activity. Osteoclast-characteristic enzyme activity was determined using gel zymography or spectroflurometric-based assay. Expression of signal molecules was analyzed via Western blot or immunoprecipitation. Results showed that (+)-vitisin A suppressed RANKL-induced multinuclear cells (MNCs) formation and bone resorption which was accompanied with reduction in β3 integrin, osteoclast stimulatory transmembrane protein (OC-STAMP), matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) and cathepsin K proteins expression. (+)-Vitisin A also down-regulated the proteolytic activities of MMP-9 and cathepsin K via targeting at the late stage function. (+)-Vitisin A prominently abrogated RANKL-triggered nuclear translocations of NF-κB, AP-1 (c-Fos/c-Jun dimer) and associated induction and nuclear accumulation of nuclear factor of activated T cells c1 (NFATc1). The upstream IκB degradation as well as ERK and JNK phosphorylation were also substantially repressed. Transfection with siRNA targeting tumor necrosis factor receptor associated factor 6 (TRAF6) clearly restrained RANKL-induced MNCs formation and NFATc1 induction. Interesting, RANKL triggered poly-ubiquitination of TRAF6 and associated TRAF6-TAK1 (transforming growth factor β-activated kinase 1) complex formation was prominently attenuated by (+)-vitisin A. Furthermore, the interaction between c-src tyrosine kinase (c-Src) and β3 was markedly induced by RANKL stimulation. (+)-Vitisin A significantly attenuated this interaction when concomitant treated with RANKL in RAW264.7 cells, but failed to affect c-Src/β3 complex formation when post-cultured with MNCs. Taken together, (+)-vitisin A suppressed bone resorption possibly via interruption of RANKL-induced TRAF6 ubiquitination and associated downstream signaling pathways. Furthermore, action through negative regulation of the proteolytic activity of MMP-9 and cathepsin K might also contribute to the anti-resorption effect of (+)-vitisin A.

Full Text Links

Find Full Text Links for this Article


You are not logged in. Sign Up or Log In to join the discussion.

Related Papers

Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read

Save your favorite articles in one place with a free QxMD account.


Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"