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National Surveillance of Central Diabetes Insipidus (CDI) in Denmark: results from 5 years registration of 9309 prescriptions of desmopressin to 1285 CDI patients.

CONTEXT: Epidemiological data for central diabetes insipidus (CDI) are sparse.

OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to provide accurate epidemiological data on CDI on a national level.

DESIGN AND SETTING: This was a drug utilization and patient registry study during a 5-year period from 2007 to 2011.

METHODS: We used the Danish National Prescription Registry data linked with the Danish National Patient Registry to study the epidemiology of CDI using waiting time distribution and other pharmacoepidemiological methods.

PATIENTS: A total of 1285 patients with CDI were recorded in the observation period and given 9309 prescriptions for desmopressin in the nasal formulation, orodispersible tablet, or conventional tablet.

RESULTS: The period prevalence rate of CDI in Denmark over the 5-year period investigated was 23 CDI patients per 100 000 inhabitants, with a higher prevalence in children and older adults (>80 years of age). The 1-year period prevalence rate of CDI decreased in Denmark over the 5 years from approximately 10 to 7 CDI patients per 100 000 inhabitants. The yearly incidence rate of new cases of CDI was found to be 3 to 4 patients per 100 000. The incidence of (presumable) congenital CDI was found to be 2 infants per 100 000 infants. Half of the patients with CDI prescribed as oral treatment were provided dosing instructions to only administer the drug before bedtime, and one third of the CDI patients either had no specific instructions or were instructed to use the drug as needed. Hospital admissions due to severe hyponatremia occurred in 0.9% of patients over a 5-year period, predominantly in females with an incidence ratio of women to men of 1.8:1.

CONCLUSION: Half of the cases of CDI are acquired later in life. At least half of the patients with CDI are instructed to prevent nocturnal polyuria, but it is not clear whether their CDI remains uncontrolled during the daytime or, alternatively, whether they use desmopressin only as needed. Female patients with CDI had approximately twice the number of hospital admissions due to severe hyponatremia than male patients with CDI.

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