JOURNAL ARTICLE

Supercharging irradiated allografts with mesenchymal stem cells improves acetabular bone grafting in revision arthroplasty

Philippe Hernigou, Jacques Pariat, Steffen Queinnec, Yasuhiro Homma, Charles Henri Flouzat Lachaniette, Nathalie Chevallier, Helene Rouard
International Orthopaedics 2014, 38 (9): 1913-21
24509980

PURPOSE: The procedure of bone allografting associated with a reinforcement device is widely used for acetabulum revision. However in absence of biologic fixation of the allograft, failure of the reconstruction may occur. We made the hypothesis that it would be possible to load these grafts with bone marrow derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) to rescue the osteogenic capacity of an allogenic dead bone and therefore enhance incorporation of allografts with the host bone and decrease the number of failures related to the allograft.

METHOD: We identified 60 patients who had undergone acetabular component revision for aseptic failure of cemented implants associated with massive periacetabular osteolysis and Paprosky type 3A or 3B classification (without pelvic discontinuity) between 1996 and 2001. The study group of 30 patients received MSCs in the allograft and at the host graft junction. The average total number of MSCs received by each patient was 195,000 cells (range 86,000-254,000 cells). The control group of 30 patients had no MSCs in the allograft. Patients were matched for the size of periacetabular osteolysis (Paprosky type 3A or 3B). We compared the evolution of the allografts and evaluated cup migration and revision of the hips as end points at a minimum of 12 years or until failure.

RESULT: Better radiographic graft union rates and less allograft resorption were observed with allografts loaded with stem cells. Allograft resorption was significantly decreased in the group with allograft loaded with MSCs (1.2 cm(2) -range 0-2.3 cm(2)-of resorption on radiographs in the group with MSCs; versus 6 cm(2), range 2.1-8.5 cm(2) in the group without MSCs). The rate of mechanical failure was highest (p = 0.01) among the 30 patients with allograft without stem cells (9/30; 30 %) compared with no failures for patients with allograft loaded with stem cells. Revision of the cup was necessary in nine patients in the control group. No revision was performed in the 30 patients of the study group with MSCs.

CONCLUSION: For acetabular defect reconstruction, loading the allograft with MSCs has resulted in a lower rate of failure as compared with allograft without MSCs.

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