Impact of 2+1 pneumococcal conjugate vaccine program in the province of Quebec, Canada

Philippe De Wals, Brigitte Lefebvre, France Markowski, Geneviève Deceuninck, Fannie Defay, Monique Douville-Fradet, Monique Landry
Vaccine 2014 March 14, 32 (13): 1501-6

BACKGROUND: Quebec was the first jurisdiction in the world to recommend a 3-dose (2+1) pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV) schedule. The program was implemented in December 2004 with a catch-up for children <5 years. PCV-7 was first used and replaced, respectively, by PCV-10 in 2009 and by PCV-13 in 2011.

METHODS: Cases of invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) notified to public health authorities and isolates submitted to the provincial reference laboratory during the period 2000-2011 were analyzed.

RESULTS: IPD incidence in children <5 years was 67/100,000 in 2001-2004, and decreased to 32/100,000 in 2007-2009 following PCV-7 implementation (p<0.01). A further decrease to 24/100,000 was observed in 2010-2011 following PCV-10 introduction (p<0.01). PCV-7 serotypes represented 82% of the total IPD cases in 2000-2004 and elimination was achieved in 2011. Main emerging serotypes were 19A and 7F. Children exposed to the PCV-10 experienced lower IPD rates and all serotypes contributed to the decline, mainly 7F and 19A. In adults, a decrease of low magnitude was observed in 2005-2006 but rates in 2007-2009 were higher than in the prevaccination period.

CONCLUSIONS: A 3-dose PCV schedule with high uptake is highly effective and should be recommended worldwide. Serotype replacement eroded benefits especially in adults. PCV-10 introduction had an effect and the impact of PCV-13 use remains to be evaluated.

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