JOURNAL ARTICLE

Efficacy of the rePON1 mutant IIG1 to prevent cyclosarin toxicity in vivo and to detoxify structurally different nerve agents in vitro

Franz Worek, Thomas Seeger, Moshe Goldsmith, Yacov Ashani, Haim Leader, Joel S Sussman, Dan Tawfik, Horst Thiermann, Timo Wille
Archives of Toxicology 2014, 88 (6): 1257-66
24477626
The potent human toxicity of organophosphorus (OP) nerve agents calls for the development of effective antidotes. Standard treatment for nerve agent poisoning with atropine and an oxime has a limited efficacy. An alternative approach is the development of catalytic bioscavengers using OP-hydrolyzing enzymes such as paraoxonases (PON1). Recently, a chimeric PON1 mutant, IIG1, was engineered toward the hydrolysis of the toxic isomers of soman and cyclosarin with high in vitro catalytic efficiency. In order to investigate the suitability of IIG1 as a catalytic bioscavenger, an in vivo guinea pig model was established to determine the protective effect of IIG1 against the highly toxic nerve agent cyclosarin. Prophylactic i.v. injection of IIG1 (1 mg/kg) prevented systemic toxicity in cyclosarin (~2LD50)-poisoned guinea pigs, preserved brain acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity, and protected erythrocyte AChE activity partially. A lower IIG1 dose (0.2 mg/kg) already prevented mortality and reduced systemic toxicity. IIG1 exhibited a high catalytic efficiency with a homologous series of alkylmethylfluorophosphonates but had low efficiency with the phosphoramidate tabun and was virtually ineffective with the nerve agent VX. This quantitative analysis validated the model for predicting in vivo protection by catalytic bioscavengers based on their catalytic efficiency, the level of circulating enzyme, and the dose of the intoxicating nerve agent. The in vitro and in vivo results indicate that IIG1 may be considered as a promising candidate bioscavenger to protect against the toxic effects of a range of highly toxic nerve agents.

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