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Peripheral neuropathy and Guillain-Barré syndrome risks associated with exposure to systemic fluoroquinolones: a pharmacovigilance analysis.

PURPOSE: Peripheral neuropathy (PN) is an identified risk of systemic antibacterial therapy with fluoroquinolones. The risk and its severity, including the development of Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS) between individual agents is uncertain. This study examines the association between fluoroquinolones and PN and GBS in cases spontaneously reported to the FDA Adverse Event Reporting System.

METHODS: Cases reported to FDA Adverse Event Reporting System between 1997 and 2012 were retrieved. The Medical Dictionary for Regulatory Activities Preferred Term was used to define PN and GBS. Individual fluoroquinolones were identified by generic names and route of administration. Empirical Bayes Geometric Mean (EBGM) with 95% confidence interval (EB05-EB95) was calculated as disproportionality measure. Safety signals with EB05 2 or more was considered a significant disproportional increase in the event reporting of at least twice times higher than that expected.

RESULTS: There were 539 PN reports out of 46,257 adverse event reports submitted for fluoroquinolones. Nine percent of PN reports were for GBS. Significant disproportionality of PN (EBGM 2.70; EB05-EB95 2.51-2.90) and GBS (EBGM 3.22; EB05-EB95 2.55-4.02) was identified for fluoroquinolones. Signals of PN were detected for ciprofloxacin (EBGM 3.24; EB05-EB95 2.87-3.66) and levofloxacin (EBGM 3.36; EB05-EB95 3.02-3.72). A GBS signal was detected for ciprofloxacin (EBGM 4.15; EB05-EB95 2.94-5.74). GBS and PN, respectively, ranked 6th and 8th among reported neurologic events.

CONCLUSIONS: This study re-emphasizes the link between fluoroquinolones and PN and shows the potential association with more severe forms of nerve damage, for example, GBS. Unless the benefit of fluoroquinolone therapy (e.g., overwhelming infection or development of bacterial resistance) outweighs PN risk, treatment with alternative antibacterial agents is recommended.

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