Contemporary incidence, predictors, and outcomes of acute kidney injury in patients undergoing percutaneous coronary interventions: insights from the NCDR Cath-PCI registry

Thomas T Tsai, Uptal D Patel, Tara I Chang, Kevin F Kennedy, Frederick A Masoudi, Michael E Matheny, Mikhail Kosiborod, Amit P Amin, John C Messenger, John S Rumsfeld, John A Spertus
JACC. Cardiovascular Interventions 2014, 7 (1): 1-9

OBJECTIVES: This study sought to examine the contemporary incidence, predictors and outcomes of acute kidney injury in patients undergoing percutaneous coronary interventions.

BACKGROUND: Acute kidney injury (AKI) is a serious and potentially preventable complication of percutaneous coronary interventions (PCIs) that is associated with adverse outcomes. The contemporary incidence, predictors, and outcomes of AKI are not well defined, and clarifying these can help identify high-risk patients for proactive prevention.

METHODS: A total of 985,737 consecutive patients underwent PCIs at 1,253 sites participating in the National Cardiovascular Data Registry Cath-PCI registry from June 2009 through June 2011. AKI was defined on the basis of changes in serum creatinine level in the hospital according to the Acute Kidney Injury Network (AKIN) criteria. Using multivariable regression analyses with generalized estimating equations, we identified patient characteristics associated with AKI.

RESULTS: Overall, 69,658 (7.1%) patients experienced AKI, with 3,005 (0.3%) requiring new dialysis. On multivariable analyses, the factors most strongly associated with development of AKI included ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) presentation (odds ratio [OR]: 2.60; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 2.53 to 2.67), severe chronic kidney disease (OR: 3.59; 95% CI: 3.47 to 3.71), and cardiogenic shock (OR: 2.92; 95% CI: 2.80 to 3.04). The in-hospital mortality rate was 9.7% for patients with AKI and 34% for those requiring dialysis compared with 0.5% for patients without AKI (p < 0.001). After multivariable adjustment, AKI (OR: 7.8; 95% CI: 7.4 to 8.1, p < 0.001) and dialysis (OR: 21.7; 95% CI: 19.6 to 24.1; p < 0.001) remained independent predictors of in-hospital mortality.

CONCLUSIONS: Approximately 7% of patients undergoing a PCI experience AKI, which is strongly associated with in-hospital mortality. Defining strategies to minimize the risk of AKI in patients undergoing PCI are needed to improve the safety and outcomes of the procedure.

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