Journal Article
Meta-Analysis
Review
Systematic Review
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A systematic review and meta-analysis of abdominal compartment syndrome after endovascular repair of ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysms.

OBJECTIVE: Limited data exist regarding the development of abdominal compartment syndrome (ACS) after endovascular repair of ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysms (RAAAs). We aimed to record the incidence, management, and outcome of this complication.

METHODS: A systematic review and meta-analysis of the English language literature was undertaken through June 2012. Articles reporting data on outcome after endovascular repair of RAAAs were identified, and information regarding ACS was sought.

RESULTS: Included were 39 eligible studies reporting 1134 patients. The pooled perioperative mortality was 21% (95% confidence interval [CI], 18%-24%). A total of 109 cases of ACS were recorded. There was significant within-study heterogeneity (Cochran Q = 94.1; P < .0001), and the pooled ACS rate was 8% (95% CI, 5.6%-10.8%). Only six studies accurately defined ACS, and four focused specifically on ACS. When the meta-analysis was repeated after including only studies with a definition and those focusing on ACS, the pooled rate increased to 17% (95% CI, 10%-26%) and 21% (95% CI, 13%-30%), respectively. A random-effects meta-regression analysis investigating the effect of ACS and other risk factors on mortality revealed a significant linear correlation between hemodynamic instability and death (r = 0.303) and a nonlinear (second degree polynomial) association between bifurcated endograft approach and death (R(2) = 0.348; P = .0027). However, no statistically significant association could be found between ACS and death. A further meta-regression analysis failed to identify any statistically significant predictors of ACS. Treatment included open decompression in 86 patients, percutaneous drainage in 18 (catheter only in five, combined with tissue plasminogen activator infusion in 13), and conservative measures in five. Data on outcome of ACS were only available for 76 patients; 35 of these died, for a mortality rate of 47%.

CONCLUSIONS: The pooled ACS rate was calculated at 8%, but this figure may be >20% with improved awareness and vigilant monitoring. Although no statistically significant association could be found between ACS and death, almost half the patients who developed ACS after endovascular repair of RAAAs were likely to die.

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